Psychoneuroimmunology Database

The Database of Psychoneuroimmunology (DPNI)

The Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) Portal and Knowledge Base

Potential Biomarkers for Anxiety

The Database of Biomarkers: Depression

Mind-Body Medicine

About Meditation: The Portal and Knowledge Base

The Nervous System


The Database of Cytokines


The Database of Biological Rhythms (DBBR)

Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)-Associated Inflammatory Biomarkers and Networks

  • Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways

•    Bipolar disorder (BD)

Adolescents with bipolar disorder (BD) showed increased levels of NF-κB in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, monocytes, and lymphocytes when they were compared with the controls (Miklowitz et al. 2016). They also had increased plasma levels of IL-1β. In addition, higher levels of stimulated NF-κB in monocytes were related to the severity of the depressive symptoms.

•    Pain and opioid treatment

Pain and opioids may have combined effects on the activation of the early inflammatory marker NF-κB (Compton et al. 2015). Pain or opioid administration alone may not have effects on NF-κB levels. However, the combined effects may lead to the higher levels of NF-κB in stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, monocytes, and lymphocytes. The accrual effects of acute pain and opioids that are often seen in clinical conditions may stimulate the critical transcription factor in the proinflammatory reactions.


Compton P, Griffis C, Breen EC, Torrington M, Sadakane R, Tefera E, Irwin MR. Opioid treatment of experimental pain activates nuclear factor-κB. J Opioid Manag. 2015 Mar-Apr;11(2):115-25. doi: 10.5055/jom.2015.0261.

Miklowitz DJ, Portnoff LC, Armstrong CC, Keenan-Miller D, Breen EC, Muscatell KA, Eisenberger NI, Irwin MR. Inflammatory cytokines and nuclear factor-kappa B activation in adolescents with bipolar and major depressive disorders. Psychiatry Res. 2016 Jul 30;241:315-22. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2016.04.120.

•    Effects of Mind-Body Interventions


  • Interleukin 6 (IL-6) pathways


  • Tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-α) pathways


  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) pathways


  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR α, β, and γ)
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