Indomethacin for Various Coronaviruses
- Cyclopentenone cyclooxygenase (COX) metabolites have been found to be useful targets against RNA viruses (Amici et al., 2006).
- The COX inhibitor indomethacin (INDO) may have antiviral effects against SARS-CoV and canine coronavirus (CCoV).
- INDO may inhibit the viral RNA synthesis and replication.
- The antiviral effects of INDO have been tested in CCoV-infected dogs (Amici et al., 2006).
- INDO has both anti-inflammatory and antiviral effects with potentials for the treatment of SARS and other coronaviruses.
P-PMOs for Murine Hepatitis Virus (MHV)
- The antiviral effects of peptide-conjugated antisense phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (P-PMOs) were examined.
- P-PMOs were tested for several strains of murine hepatitis virus (MHV) (Burrer et al., 2007).
- One of the P-PMOs (5TERM) complementary to the 5’ terminus of the genomic RNA was found effective against six strains of MHV.
- The 5TERM P-PMO therapy decreased viral titers in target organs and protected from virus-induced tissue damages in mouse models.
- The prophylactic 5TERM P-PMO therapy alleviated weight loss caused by infections and prolonged survival.
- However, 5TERM P-PMO was not protective in the cases of high-dose viral infections followed by delayed treatment.
- P-PMO may have toxic effects in late-stage diseased mice (Burrer et al., 2007).
- With its antiviral effects, further development of P-PMO may provide treatments for a broad spectrum of coronavirus infections.
Potential Antiviral Agents for Hepatitis C Virus and SARS
- The 5-hydroxychromone (5b-5g) may be a potential antiviral agent with anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) effects (Kim et al., 2011).
- Some of the derivatives 5b-5f were found effective against SARS-associated coronavirus (SCV).
- The 5b-5f were effective against both NTPase and helicase activities of the target enzymes of SCV.
- The 3-iodobenzyloxy-substituted derivative 5e had the most potent activity against HCV and SCV.
- Such platform structures may be useful for the design of multi-targets or broad-spectrum antiviral drugs (Kim et al., 2011).
Amici, C., Di Caro, A., Ciucci, A., Chiappa, L., Castilletti, C., Martella, V., Decaro, N., Buonavoglia, C., Capobianchi, M. R., & Santoro, M. G. (2006). Indomethacin has a potent antiviral activity against SARS coronavirus. Antiviral Therapy, 11(8), 1021–1030.
Burrer, R., Neuman, B. W., Ting, J. P. C., Stein, D. A., Moulton, H. M., Iversen, P. L., Kuhn, P., & Buchmeier, M. J. (2007). Antiviral effects of antisense morpholino oligomers in murine coronavirus infection models. Journal of Virology, 81(11), 5637–5648. https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02360-06
Kim, M. K., Yu, M.-S., Park, H. R., Kim, K. B., Lee, C., Cho, S. Y., Kang, J., Yoon, H., Kim, D.-E., Choo, H., Jeong, Y.-J., & Chong, Y. (2011). 2,6-Bis-arylmethyloxy-5-hydroxychromones with antiviral activity against both hepatitis C virus (HCV) and SARS-associated coronavirus (SCV). European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 46(11), 5698–5704. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2011.09.005