Category Archives: Psychology

Psychology

Psychiatric Symptoms and the Gene SGCE (Sarcoglycan Epsilon)

The SGCE gene has other symbols as “ESG” and “DYT11”. It is located at 7q21.3. As a member of the sarcoglycan family, it is a component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC). It provides the connections between the actin cytoskeleton and … Continue reading

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Epilepsy and the Gene KCNT1 (Potassium Sodium-Activated Channel Subfamily T member 1)

The KCNT1 gene has other symbols as “ENFL5”, “SLACK”, “EIEE14”, “KCa4.1”, “Slo2.2”, and “bA100C15.2”. It is located at 9q34.3. Encoding a sodium-activated potassium channel, this gene is highly expressed in the brain (Nagase et al. 2000). It has been related … Continue reading

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Neuropsychiatric Disorders and the Gene COMT (Catechol-O-Methyltransferase)

The COMT gene has another symbol as “HEL-S-98n”. It is located at 22q11.21. It is an important enzyme in the process of metabolic degradation of catecholamines (Gogos et al., 1998). The 158met variant on the nondeleted allele has been related … Continue reading

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Psychiatric Diseases and the Gene DISC1 (Disrupted in Schizophrenia 1)

The DISC1 gene has other symbols as “SCZD9” and “C1orf136”. It is located at 1q42.2. It is involved in the regulation of the AKT-mTOR signaling pathway and associated with embryonic and adult neurogenesis (Kim et al. 2009). DISC1 has been … Continue reading

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Stress, Depression, Inflammation, and Personalized Medicine

Stress, Depression, Inflammation, and Personalized Medicine Psychological stress has been associated with higher levels of inflammation and the risks of many physical disorders including heart diseases. For example, chronic stress responses may cause a variety of skin disorders including allergic … Continue reading

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Stress, Chronic Diseases, and Psychoneuroimmunology

Stress, Chronic Diseases, and Psychoneuroimmunology Although many chronic diseases such as cancer are apparently physical, they can lead to psychological distress. Chronic psychosocial stress may in turn affect the physical health negatively. Studies in psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) have shown that the … Continue reading

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Mindfulness and Psychotherapy: How It can Help

Psychotherapies containing mindfulness elements have increased to more than 40% (Simon, 2007). Mindfulness is becoming a “transtheoretical” construct and a major perceptual process in psychotherapies. Scientific studies of meditation are transforming meditation into the main stream. The focus of the … Continue reading

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Treatment of Mental Problems: A Summary of Therapies and Features

Treatment of Mental Problems: A Summary of Therapies and Features   Therapies Contents Features/Examples Explanations/Targets Side Effect Examples Psychoanalysis/psychodynamic therapy Free association       Catharsis Transference Behavior therapies Classical conditioning-based therapies Exposure therapies Systematic desensitization   Flooding   Aversion … Continue reading

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Psychopathology: A Summary of Types, Disorders, and Concepts

Psychopathology: A Summary of Types, Disorders, and Concepts   Concepts/Theories/Sources Categories Categories Components/Disorders Problems Examples/Details Types/Examples Mental disorder features (Holmes) Distress Psychological discomfort         Disability Unable to do daily activities         Deviance Abnormal mood, … Continue reading

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Personality: A Summary of Theories, Concepts, and Stages

Personality: A Summary of Theories, Concepts, and Stages   Theories Concepts/Stages Features/Stages Features/Examples The psychoanalytic view (Freud and followers) Early childhood experiences and unconscious forces can shape behaviors     The developmental “crisis” (stages with conflicts) Trait theory Essential traits … Continue reading

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Social Psychology: A Summary of Theories and Concepts

Social Psychology: A Summary of Theories and Concepts   Theories Concepts Features Attribution theory Explanations of behaviors   Dispositional Internal attribution   Situational External attributions   Fundamental attribution error Underestimation of the influence of the situation on actions   Self-serving … Continue reading

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Emotions, Stress, and Coping: A Summary of Theories and Concepts

Emotions, Stress, and Coping: A Summary of Theories and Concepts   Categories/Concepts/Structures Theories Features Features/Contents The autonomic system Cannon-Bard theory 2 messages from the brain area processing sensory information To the autonomic system   To the limbic system James-Lange theory … Continue reading

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Motivation: A Summary of Theories, Concepts, and Substances

Motivation: A Summary of Theories, Concepts, and Substances   Theories Concepts/Structures Substances/Features Features Instinct theory Unconsciously motivated behaviors (Freud)     Drive theory Drive-reduction/homeostatic theory Optimum arousal Yerkes-Dodson law/Inverted-U Hypothesis Incentive theory Operant conditioning     Overjustification effect Motivation is … Continue reading

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Lifespan Development: Concepts, Stages, and Features

Lifespan Development: Concepts, Stages, and Features   Areas Theories/Concepts/Stages Features/Stages Explanations/Sub-Stages Associated Concepts/Features/Problems Developmental psychology Cognition Reasoning, thought     Psychosocial Personality, behavior in social environments     Critical periods Prenatal     Developmental milestones     Sensitive/optimal periods Gains … Continue reading

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Concepts of Cognition, Thinking, Language, and Intelligence

Concepts of Cognition, Thinking, Language, and Intelligence   Concepts Contents Related Concepts Cognition Understanding   Interpreting Organizing Remembering Problem solving Decision making Creating Mental representations Symbols   Language Concepts Images Observational learning Cognitive map   Concepts Natural concepts Fuzzy concepts … Continue reading

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Memory Stages and Concepts

Memory Stages and Concepts   Concepts Explanations Sensory memory The stage that information registers or is “held”, decided by attention. Short-term/working memory The encoding/consolidation process to prepare for storage; the limbic system, esp. the hippocampus is involved, the front lobes … Continue reading

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Concepts of Learning: Conditioning, Reinforcement

Concepts of Learning: Conditioning, Reinforcement     Classical Conditioning   Concepts Responses Unconditioned stimulus (UCS): naturally induces a response Unconditioned response (UCR) Neutral stimulus No specific reactions Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) + Neutral stimulus Association: Neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus (CS)) -> … Continue reading

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Sleep, Circadian Rhythm, Hypnosis, and Meditation

Sleep, Circadian Rhythm, Hypnosis, and Meditation     Circadian Rhythm   Relevant Brain Structures Locations Influences Pineal gland Close to the hypothalamus Rapid eye movement (REM) Melatonin (low in the morning, high in the evening) Reticular activating system (RAS) Brain … Continue reading

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Perception: Concepts and Theories

Perception: Concepts and Theories     Perception: A complex process begins in the brain   Perceptual set: A “frame of mind” that expectations affect the interpretation of inputs.   Culture and perception: Nature and experience influence our perception, e.g., the … Continue reading

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The Eight Senses: Touch, Pain, Balance and Kinesthesis

The Eight Senses: Touch, Pain, Balance and Kinesthesis     Types Physical stimulus Equipment Sub-Structures Roles of the Brain Theories Touch Cutaneous receptors for stimuli: pressure, vibration, heat, cold, etc. Hair follicle ending (in the skin): for hair displacement Ruffini … Continue reading

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The Eight Senses: Smell and Taste

The Eight Senses: Smell and Taste     Types Physical stimulus Equipment Sub-Structures Role of the Brain Theories Olfaction (smell) Chemical molecules in the air Molecules -> inhaled via the nostrils, mouth -> nasal cavity -> olfactory cilia, olfactory epithelium … Continue reading

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The Eight Senses: Hearing

The Eight Senses: Hearing     Types Physical Stimulus Equipment The Role of the Brain Theories Hearing Sound waves (air pressure changes in compression and expansion through space) features: frequency of cycles (pitch – high/low sounds from vibration rates; hertz … Continue reading

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The Eight Senses: Vision

The Eight Senses: Vision     Types Physical stimulus Equipments Sub-Structures Role of the Brain Theories Vision Light waves (the electromagnetic spectrum from red to violet visible to the human eyes) Cornea: protection, light-gathering   Light -> sclera (white), aqueous … Continue reading

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Concepts about Sensations

Concepts about Sensations   Concepts Explanations Sub-concepts/Examples Explanations Sensation Detection and translation of physical stimulus (sound, light, texture, flavor, etc.) into action potentials via receptor cells in the peripheral nervous system     Transduction The process the stimuli are turned … Continue reading

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Behavioral Genetics and Evolutionary Psychology

Behavioral Genetics Methods   Methods Study models Characteristics Research focus Core concepts/notes Twin studies Monozygotic/identical twins Identical genotypes; shared environment Relationships between heredity and experience Hereditability: an index of differences in people that can only be caused by genetic inheritance … Continue reading

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