Author Archives: Pharm Tao

Host Factors and Antiviral Targets

Host Factors and Antiviral Targets (From Potential Antiviral Agents for Coronaviruses: Compounds, Herbal Products, and Drug Targets) Host factors associated with SARS-CoV replication need to be investigated (de Wilde et al., 2015). These factors include the innate immune response and … Continue reading

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Saikosaponins and Coronaviruses

Saikosaponins (From Potential Antiviral Agents for Coronaviruses: Compounds, Herbal Products, and Drug Targets) Saikosaponins are oleanane derivatives including glucosides (Cheng et al., 2006). Saikosaponins are extracted from plants such as Bupleurum spp., Heteromorpha spp. and Scrophularia scorodonia. Saikosaponins have anti-inflammatory … Continue reading

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Antiviral Compounds and Human Coronavirus OC43

Antiviral Compounds and Human Coronavirus OC43 (From Potential Antiviral Agents for Coronaviruses: Compounds, Herbal Products, and Drug Targets) Stephania tetrandra and Menispermaceae contain the bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloids tetrandrine (TET) (Kim et al., 2019). They also have fangchinoline (FAN) and cepharanthine (CEP). … Continue reading

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Herbal Extracts May Inhibit Coronavirus Replication

Herbal Extracts May Inhibit Coronavirus Replication (From Potential Antiviral Agents for Coronaviruses: Compounds, Herbal Products, and Drug Targets) Medicinal herbal extracts have been screened for their antiviral effects on coronavirus replication (Kim et al., 2008; Kim et al., 2010). The … Continue reading

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Antiviral Flavonoids from Houttuynia Cordata

Antiviral Flavonoids from Houttuynia Cordata (From Potential Antiviral Agents for Coronaviruses: Compounds, Herbal Products, and Drug Targets) The ethyl acetate (EA) fraction of Houttuynia cordata (H. cordata) Thunb. (Saururaceae) may have antiviral effects. It may be used against coronaviruses and … Continue reading

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Sabadinine, Houttuynia Cordata, and Coronaviruses

Sabadinine and Houttuynia Cordata (From Potential Antiviral Agents for Coronaviruses: Compounds, Herbal Products, and Drug Targets) The replication of CoVs relies on proteolytic processing (Toney et al., 2004). The major proteinase, 3C-like protease (3CLpro), may become a target for anti-SARS … Continue reading

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Glycyrrhizin, Cinnamomi Cortex, and Toona Sinensis Roem

Glycyrrhizin, Cinnamomi Cortex, and Toona Sinensis Roem (From Potential Antiviral Agents for Coronaviruses: Compounds, Herbal Products, and Drug Targets) Glycyrrhizin (GL) may suppress SARS-CoV replication (Hoever et al., 2005). The insertion of 2-acetamido-beta-d-glucopyranosylamine into the GL glycoside chain increased the … Continue reading

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The Antiviral Flavonoids for SARS-CoV and HCV

The Antiviral Flavonoids for SARS-CoV and HCV (From Potential Antiviral Agents for Coronaviruses: Compounds, Herbal Products, and Drug Targets) Aryl diketoacid (ADK) has antiviral effects that can be improved by adding an aromatic arylmethyl substituent (Park et al., 2012). A … Continue reading

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Emodin and the SARS Coronavirus

Emodin and the SARS Coronavirus (From Potential Antiviral Agents for Coronaviruses: Compounds, Herbal Products, and Drug Targets) SARS-CoV spike (S) protein is a type I membrane-bound protein (Ho et al., 2007). It has an elemental role for the viral attachment … Continue reading

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Antiviral Herbal Compounds for SARS-CoV Ion Channels

Antiviral Herbal Compounds for SARS-CoV Ion Channels (From Potential Antiviral Agents for Coronaviruses: Compounds, Herbal Products, and Drug Targets) The protein coded by the open-reading-frame 3a of SARS coronavirus may form a cation-selective channel (Schwarz et al., 2014). The channel … Continue reading

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The Antiviral Compound for MERS-CoV

The Antiviral Compound for MERS-CoV (From Potential Antiviral Agents for Coronaviruses: Compounds, Herbal Products, and Drug Targets) A type of nucleoside analogues may be similar to the natural nucleosides that can block viral replication (Agostini et al., 2019). Potent antiviral … Continue reading

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Structural Analysis for Antiviral Compounds

Structural Analysis for Antiviral Compounds (From Potential Antiviral Agents for Coronaviruses: Compounds, Herbal Products, and Drug Targets) The coronavirus main protease (M(pro)) is critical in viral gene expression (Xue et al., 2008). The viral replication through the proteolytic processing of … Continue reading

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Potential Antiviral Compounds for Coronaviruses: Tests and Screenings

Potential Antiviral Compounds for Coronaviruses: Tests and Screenings (From Potential Antiviral Agents for Coronaviruses: Compounds, Herbal Products, and Drug Targets) Some agents inhibiting coronaviral replication have been investigated (Golda and Pyrc, 2008). The potential antiviral agents include (Golda and Pyrc, … Continue reading

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Antiviral Antibodies, Immunity, and Coronaviruses

Antiviral Antibodies and Coronaviruses (From Potential Antiviral Agents for Coronaviruses: Compounds, Herbal Products, and Drug Targets) Mutations in virus-derived CD8 T-cell epitopes may abolish cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) recognition (Butler et al., 2007). The mutations may block virus clearance in coronavirus-infected … Continue reading

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Potential Antiviral Agents for SARS and Various Coronaviruses

Indomethacin for Various Coronaviruses (From Potential Antiviral Agents for Coronaviruses: Compounds, Herbal Products, and Drug Targets) Cyclopentenone cyclooxygenase (COX) metabolites have been found to be useful targets against RNA viruses (Amici et al., 2006). The COX inhibitor indomethacin (INDO) may … Continue reading

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Remdesivir and Chloroquine as Potential Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Drugs

Remdesivir As A Potential Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Drug (From Potential Antiviral Agents for Coronavirus-es: Compounds, Herbal Products, and Drug Targets) The nucleoside analogue GS-5734 (remdesivir) has been found to inhibit human and zoonotic CoVs (Agostini et al., 2018). GS-5734 may inhibit … Continue reading

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Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Drugs for Coronaviruses

Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Drugs for Coronaviruses (From Potential Antiviral Agents for Coronavirus-es: Compounds, Herbal Products, and Drug Targets) Broad-spectrum antiviral drugs may lower the vulnerability of public health systems to the coronavirus pandemic. Broad-spectrum antiviral drugs are needed to Combat the … Continue reading

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About Coronaviruses (CoVs)

About Coronaviruses (CoVs) (From Potential Antiviral Agents for Coronavirus-es: Compounds, Herbal Products, and Drug Targets) Coronaviruses (CoVs) may lead to lethal infections, but currently no effective antiviral therapeutics or vaccines are available. The pandemic of the deadly coronavirus disease 2019 … Continue reading

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Studies about Antiviral Drugs for Coronaviruses

The Antiviral Remdesivir and the Coronavirus SARS-CoV Agostini, M. L., Andres, E. L., Sims, A. C., Graham, R. L., Sheahan, T. P., Lu, X., Smith, E. C., Case, J. B., Feng, J. Y., Jordan, R., Ray, A. S., Cihlar, T., … Continue reading

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Resources for Studying the 2019-nCoV Coronavirus (COVID-19): Databases and Tools

Resources for Studying the 2019-nCoV Coronavirus (COVID-19): Databases and Tools “human coronaviruses such as …endemic human coronaviruses (HCoV) can persist on inanimate surfaces like metal, glass or plastic for up to 9 days…” From Persistence of coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces … Continue reading

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Metabolomics of Obesity: Gut Microbiota

Recent Development in Metabolomics of Obesity: Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Syndrome Abu Bakar, M. H., Sarmidi, M. R., Cheng, K.-K., Ali Khan, A., Suan, C. L., Zaman Huri, H., & Yaakob, H. (2015). Metabolomics – the complementary field in systems … Continue reading

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Biomarkers Database: Obesity in Different Populations

Park, B.-Y., Hong, J., & Park, H. (2017). Neuroimaging biomarkers to associate obesity and negative emotions. Scientific Reports, 7(1), 7664. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-08272-8 Pecht, T., Gutman-Tirosh, A., Bashan, N., & Rudich, A. (2014). Peripheral blood leucocyte subclasses as potential biomarkers of adipose … Continue reading

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Biomarkers Database: Obesity, Cognition, and Inflammation

Garcia-Mazcorro, J. F., Mills, D. A., Murphy, K., & Noratto, G. (2018). Effect of barley supplementation on the fecal microbiota, caecal biochemistry, and key biomarkers of obesity and inflammation in obese db/db mice. European Journal of Nutrition, 57(7), 2513–2528. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-017-1523-y … Continue reading

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Biomarkers Database: Obesity, Metabolic Disorders, and Cardiovascular Risks

Aleksandrova, K., Mozaffarian, D., & Pischon, T. (2018). Addressing the Perfect Storm: Biomarkers in Obesity and Pathophysiology of Cardiometabolic Risk. Clinical Chemistry, 64(1), 142–153. https://doi.org/10.1373/clinchem.2017.275172 Bagheri, M., Djazayery, A., Qi, L., Yekaninejad, M. S., Chamari, M., Naderi, M., … Farzadfar, … Continue reading

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Potential Biomarkers of Obesity

For obesity with cardiovascular diseases: Peterson, S. J., Shapiro, J. I., Thompson, E., Singh, S., Liu, L., Weingarten, J. A., … Abraham, N. G. (2019). Oxidized HDL, Adipokines, and Endothelial Dysfunction: A Potential Biomarker Profile for Cardiovascular Risk in Women … Continue reading

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