Monthly Archives: September 2012

Treatment of Mental Problems: A Summary of Therapies and Features

Treatment of Mental Problems: A Summary of Therapies and Features   Therapies Contents Features/Examples Explanations/Targets Side Effect Examples Psychoanalysis/psychodynamic therapy Free association       Catharsis Transference Behavior therapies Classical conditioning-based therapies Exposure therapies Systematic desensitization   Flooding   Aversion … Continue reading

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Psychopathology: A Summary of Types, Disorders, and Concepts

Psychopathology: A Summary of Types, Disorders, and Concepts   Concepts/Theories/Sources Categories Categories Components/Disorders Problems Examples/Details Types/Examples Mental disorder features (Holmes) Distress Psychological discomfort         Disability Unable to do daily activities         Deviance Abnormal mood, … Continue reading

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Personality: A Summary of Theories, Concepts, and Stages

Personality: A Summary of Theories, Concepts, and Stages   Theories Concepts/Stages Features/Stages Features/Examples The psychoanalytic view (Freud and followers) Early childhood experiences and unconscious forces can shape behaviors     The developmental “crisis” (stages with conflicts) Trait theory Essential traits … Continue reading

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Social Psychology: A Summary of Theories and Concepts

Social Psychology: A Summary of Theories and Concepts   Theories Concepts Features Attribution theory Explanations of behaviors   Dispositional Internal attribution   Situational External attributions   Fundamental attribution error Underestimation of the influence of the situation on actions   Self-serving … Continue reading

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Emotions, Stress, and Coping: A Summary of Theories and Concepts

Emotions, Stress, and Coping: A Summary of Theories and Concepts   Categories/Concepts/Structures Theories Features Features/Contents The autonomic system Cannon-Bard theory 2 messages from the brain area processing sensory information To the autonomic system   To the limbic system James-Lange theory … Continue reading

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Motivation: A Summary of Theories, Concepts, and Substances

Motivation: A Summary of Theories, Concepts, and Substances   Theories Concepts/Structures Substances/Features Features Instinct theory Unconsciously motivated behaviors (Freud)     Drive theory Drive-reduction/homeostatic theory Optimum arousal Yerkes-Dodson law/Inverted-U Hypothesis Incentive theory Operant conditioning     Overjustification effect Motivation is … Continue reading

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Lifespan Development: Concepts, Stages, and Features

Lifespan Development: Concepts, Stages, and Features   Areas Theories/Concepts/Stages Features/Stages Explanations/Sub-Stages Associated Concepts/Features/Problems Developmental psychology Cognition Reasoning, thought     Psychosocial Personality, behavior in social environments     Critical periods Prenatal     Developmental milestones     Sensitive/optimal periods Gains … Continue reading

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Concepts of Cognition, Thinking, Language, and Intelligence

Concepts of Cognition, Thinking, Language, and Intelligence   Concepts Contents Related Concepts Cognition Understanding   Interpreting Organizing Remembering Problem solving Decision making Creating Mental representations Symbols   Language Concepts Images Observational learning Cognitive map   Concepts Natural concepts Fuzzy concepts … Continue reading

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Memory Stages and Concepts

Memory Stages and Concepts   Concepts Explanations Sensory memory The stage that information registers or is “held”, decided by attention. Short-term/working memory The encoding/consolidation process to prepare for storage; the limbic system, esp. the hippocampus is involved, the front lobes … Continue reading

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Concepts of Learning: Conditioning, Reinforcement

Concepts of Learning: Conditioning, Reinforcement     Classical Conditioning   Concepts Responses Unconditioned stimulus (UCS): naturally induces a response Unconditioned response (UCR) Neutral stimulus No specific reactions Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) + Neutral stimulus Association: Neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus (CS)) -> … Continue reading

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Sleep, Circadian Rhythm, Hypnosis, and Meditation

Sleep, Circadian Rhythm, Hypnosis, and Meditation     Circadian Rhythm   Relevant Brain Structures Locations Influences Pineal gland Close to the hypothalamus Rapid eye movement (REM) Melatonin (low in the morning, high in the evening) Reticular activating system (RAS) Brain … Continue reading

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Perception: Concepts and Theories

Perception: Concepts and Theories     Perception: A complex process begins in the brain   Perceptual set: A “frame of mind” that expectations affect the interpretation of inputs.   Culture and perception: Nature and experience influence our perception, e.g., the … Continue reading

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The Eight Senses: Touch, Pain, Balance and Kinesthesis

The Eight Senses: Touch, Pain, Balance and Kinesthesis     Types Physical stimulus Equipment Sub-Structures Roles of the Brain Theories Touch Cutaneous receptors for stimuli: pressure, vibration, heat, cold, etc. Hair follicle ending (in the skin): for hair displacement Ruffini … Continue reading

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The Eight Senses: Smell and Taste

The Eight Senses: Smell and Taste     Types Physical stimulus Equipment Sub-Structures Role of the Brain Theories Olfaction (smell) Chemical molecules in the air Molecules -> inhaled via the nostrils, mouth -> nasal cavity -> olfactory cilia, olfactory epithelium … Continue reading

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The Eight Senses: Hearing

The Eight Senses: Hearing     Types Physical Stimulus Equipment The Role of the Brain Theories Hearing Sound waves (air pressure changes in compression and expansion through space) features: frequency of cycles (pitch – high/low sounds from vibration rates; hertz … Continue reading

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The Eight Senses: Vision

The Eight Senses: Vision     Types Physical stimulus Equipments Sub-Structures Role of the Brain Theories Vision Light waves (the electromagnetic spectrum from red to violet visible to the human eyes) Cornea: protection, light-gathering   Light -> sclera (white), aqueous … Continue reading

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Concepts about Sensations

Concepts about Sensations   Concepts Explanations Sub-concepts/Examples Explanations Sensation Detection and translation of physical stimulus (sound, light, texture, flavor, etc.) into action potentials via receptor cells in the peripheral nervous system     Transduction The process the stimuli are turned … Continue reading

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Structures and Functions of the Brain

Brain Structures and Functions     Main Structures Locations Substructures Subdivisions/Features Functions Brain stem The lowest area of the brain, on the top of the spinal cord; life support structures with neurons for sensory/motor integration Medulla (medulla oblongata) Hindbrain Regulates … Continue reading

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Brain Imaging Techniques

Brain Imaging Techniques   Imaging Techniques Materials Mechanisms Applications CAT (computerized axial tomography) X-ray pictures taken around the patient Computer-reconstructed pictures in axial slices Brain lesion or tumor detection DTI (diffusion tensor imaging) Similar to MRI Detection of molecular motions … Continue reading

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Functions of Neurotransmitters

Functions of Neurotransmitters   Neurotransmitters Functions Disorders from insufficiency Disorders from oversupply Acetylcholine Memory; muscle movement (contraction) Alzheimer’s disease, dementia Convulsions/spider bite/nerve gas Dopamine Cognition; sensory; movement Parkinson’s disease, sensory deficits, tremors Delusions, hallucinations, methamphetamine addiction Endorphins Suppress pain; improve … Continue reading

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