Treatment of Mental Problems: A Summary of Therapies and Features






Side Effect Examples

Psychoanalysis/psychodynamic therapy Free association      
Behavior therapies Classical conditioning-based therapies Exposure therapies Systematic desensitization  
Aversion therapies    
Operant conditioning-based therapies Behavior modification (applied behavior analysis) Reinforcers  
Token economy    
Social learning Participant modeling Observational learning  
Cognitive therapies Rational-emotive therapy (RET) (Ellis) Changing irrational thoughts    
Cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) (Beck) Changing¬† interpretation of thoughts    
Humanistic therapies Person-centered therapy (Rogers) Unconditional positive regard    
Existential humanistic therapy (EHT) Finding meanings in life    
Group therapy A small group      
Family systems therapy Whole families      
Pharmacotherapy Antipsychotic E.g., Haldol Targets: dopamine (reduced), serotonin (increased) Anxiety, appetite changes
Mood stabilizer E.g., Lithium Targets: Glutamate (reduced), gray matter (increased) Toxic to organs
Anticonvulsant E.g., Phenobarbital Targets: Cortical neuron firing (reduced) Nausea, dizziness
Antidepressant E.g., Prozac Targets: Serotonin, epinephrine/norepinephrine (increased) Nausea, appetite changes
Antianxiety E.g., Valium, Librium Targets: GABA (increased); sympathetic nervous system (inhibited) Sleep problems
Stimulant E.g., Ritalin Targets: Dopamine, norepinephrine (increased) Sleep problems, appetite changes


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