The History and Branches of Psychology with Early Timelines

Branches  Focus Methods Founders/Pioneers Time Contributions
Structuralism Experimental psychology   William Wundt 1879 Established the first psychology lab
The basis of the structure of consciousness Introspection: studies and describes one’s own conscious processes Edward Titchener    
Cognitive psychology The study of thought Experiments Hermann Ebbinghaus 1885 Experiments on memory
How organisms understand, interpret, process, memorize, and organize information; effects on behaviors Studies the use of information in memory, reasoning, problem resolving, and decision making      
Functionalism The effects of mental procedures on behavior, adaptation and function in the environment Applications of psychology: educational, industrial, and organizational psychology William James 1890 Book: Principles of Psychology
Behaviorism The basis of operant conditioning Experiments on animal learning Edward Thorndike 1898 Experiments on animal learning
  Ivan Pavlov 1906 Associative learning processes in animals
Conditioning experiments with humans John Watson 1920 The behaviorist view
Behavioral The effects of contingencies and observational experiences on organisms’ responses The effects of associations and contingencies on learning and behavior      
Psychodynamic (clinical psychology) The effects of unconscious forces on behavior; the confliction between unconscious forces, conscious motives and environment demands Studies the effects of unconscious forces and early experiences on current behavior Sigmund Freud 1900 Book: The Interpretation of Dreams
IQ Tests   IQ Tests Alfred Binet/Theophile Simon 1905 Impacts on education, learning, cognition/thinking
Gestalt psychology The processes of perception; consciousness elements Separate aspects of experience/mind -> integrated units of meaningful information Max Wertheimer 1912 Experiments to show the phi phenomenon
Biological/neuroscience Biochemical and electrochemical processes in the nervous system, effects of hormones Studies the role of the brain and body in sensory, feeling processes, and behaviors      
Behavioral genetics The effects of gene-environment interactions on behavior Studies the effects of genetic and environmental factors on behaviors separately and interactively      
Evolutionary Selection effects on behavior; adaptive strategies toward survival, reproduction Studies the effect of natural selection on behavioral tendencies      
Humanistic The effects of inner need for self-actualization, growth, and reaching full potential on behavior Studies the effects of subjective experience on potential achievements      
Sociocultural Effects of the cultural and societal context on behavior Studies common and unique behavioral tendencies, experiences, demands, expectations, and assumptions in various cultures      


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