Tag Archives: Neurotransmitters

Stress, Skin Disorders, and Psychoneuroimmunology

With a history of about 30 years, psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) studies the interactions among psychological activities, the nervous system, and the immune system. In the area of dermatology, many dermatologic diseases have been found to be related to mental and psychological … Continue reading

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The Integration of Immunology and Neuroscience

Although immunology and neuroscience are seemingly two different and separate disciplines, recent findings have blurred the boundaries between them. For example, a cytokine that was previously clearly defined in the immune system, interleukin-1 (IL-1), has been found to have the … Continue reading

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Synapses, Gap Junctions, and Glia: Their Structures, Functions, and Features

Synapses are the regions between the terminal of an axon and the receptors on other cells. Neurotransmitters can bring the messages across the synapses. Synapses can be open or enclosed, large or small. Synaptic inputs can affect the neuron activities. … Continue reading

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Neurotransmitters and Their Functions

There are different types of neurotransmitters. For example, glutamate (glu) is involved in the excitation of the central nervous system (CNS). Aspartate (asp) is involved in the excitation of the brain and spinal cord. Gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is involved in … Continue reading

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Structure of the Neurons: Dendrites, Axons, and Membrane Potentials

Types of cells in the nervous system There are two types of cells in the nervous system. One type of cells are called neurons, the other type of cells are called glia. Studies have found that there are about 86 … Continue reading

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Meditation, Brain Waves, and Brain Activities

Electroencephalogram (EEG) is an important method measuring the brain waves and the electrical activities of the brain. The slowest waves (about 0.5-2 cycles/second) are called delta waves. Those that cycle about 8-12 times/second are alpha waves. Those that cycle about … Continue reading

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Meditation, the Brain, Neurons, and Neurotransmitters

Meditation can help promote health in various dimensions, including physical, mental, spiritual, emotional, intellectual, and social. The scientific studies and the scans of the meditating brain found that the blood flow condition may be improved in the brain, with improved … Continue reading

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Neuroscience Data and Neuroinformatics

Neuroscience Data and Neuroinformatics   Neuroscience Data   At least 50% genes of the mammalian genome are expressed by the nervous system (Sutcliffe et al., 1991). To understand brain-related diseases, it is necessary to map and study the expression patterns … Continue reading

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Functions of Neurotransmitters

Functions of Neurotransmitters   Neurotransmitters Functions Disorders from insufficiency Disorders from oversupply Acetylcholine Memory; muscle movement (contraction) Alzheimer’s disease, dementia Convulsions/spider bite/nerve gas Dopamine Cognition; sensory; movement Parkinson’s disease, sensory deficits, tremors Delusions, hallucinations, methamphetamine addiction Endorphins Suppress pain; improve … Continue reading

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