Psychoneuroimmunology and Ocular Diseases

Stress, Chronic Diseases, and Psychoneuroimmunology

Stress, Depression, Inflammation, and Psychoneuroimmunology

Studies in psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) have revealed the connections between psychosocial stress and depression with immune dysfunctions and various physical problems (Ventura, 2009).

How about ocular diseases?

Studies have shown that psychosocial stress may affect sympathetic adrenomedullary and hypothalamic pituitary axis activation and lead to alterations in the immune functions (Ventura, 2009). Integrative method based on psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) have been recommended for ocular diseases. However, more studies are still needed to understand the mechanisms.

The studies of psychoneuroimmunology may help understand how the psychological conditions including stress, anxiety, and depression can affect the immune functions and cytokine activities in ocular diseases (Ventura, 2009).


Ventura LM. Psychoneuroimmunology: application to ocular diseases. J Ocul Biol Dis Infor. 2009 Jun;2(2):84-93.


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