Treatment of Mental Problems: A Summary of Therapies and Features

Treatment of Mental Problems: A Summary of Therapies and Features

 

Therapies

Contents

Features/Examples

Explanations/Targets

Side Effect Examples

Psychoanalysis/psychodynamic therapy Free association      
Catharsis
Transference
Behavior therapies Classical conditioning-based therapies Exposure therapies Systematic desensitization  
Flooding  
Aversion therapies    
Operant conditioning-based therapies Behavior modification (applied behavior analysis) Reinforcers  
Token economy    
Social learning Participant modeling Observational learning  
Cognitive therapies Rational-emotive therapy (RET) (Ellis) Changing irrational thoughts    
Cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) (Beck) Changing  interpretation of thoughts    
Humanistic therapies Person-centered therapy (Rogers) Unconditional positive regard    
Existential humanistic therapy (EHT) Finding meanings in life    
Group therapy A small group      
Family systems therapy Whole families      
Pharmacotherapy Antipsychotic E.g., Haldol Targets: dopamine (reduced), serotonin (increased) Anxiety, appetite changes
Mood stabilizer E.g., Lithium Targets: Glutamate (reduced), gray matter (increased) Toxic to organs
Anticonvulsant E.g., Phenobarbital Targets: Cortical neuron firing (reduced) Nausea, dizziness
Antidepressant E.g., Prozac Targets: Serotonin, epinephrine/norepinephrine (increased) Nausea, appetite changes
Antianxiety E.g., Valium, Librium Targets: GABA (increased); sympathetic nervous system (inhibited) Sleep problems
Stimulant E.g., Ritalin Targets: Dopamine, norepinephrine (increased) Sleep problems, appetite changes

 

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Psychopathology: A Summary of Types, Disorders, and Concepts

Psychopathology: A Summary of Types, Disorders, and Concepts

 

Concepts/Theories/Sources

Categories

Categories

Components/Disorders

Problems

Examples/Details

Types/Examples

Mental disorder features (Holmes) Distress Psychological discomfort        
Disability Unable to do daily activities        
Deviance Abnormal mood, thought, behavior        
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM I, II, III, IIIR, IV, IV-TR) DSM (APA, 2002) 5 axes Biological component      
Psychological component      
Social component      
Axis I Clinical/functional disorders Childhood/adolescence disorders Autism  
ADHD  
Cognitive disorders:

Dementia, amnesiac, delirium, etc.

Alzheimer’s disease  
Misuse of psychoactive substances Abuse, psychotic disorders related to substances  
Psychotic symptoms Schizophrenia Paranoid type
Catatonic type
Disorganized type
Undifferentiated type
Schizoaffective disorder  
Delusional disorders  
Mood disorders Depression  
Dysthymia mild, chronic depression
Bipolar  
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD)  
Anxiety disorder Phobias  
General anxiety disorder (GAD)  
Panic disorder  
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)  
Somatoform disorders Physical symptoms  
Factitious disorders Malingering  
Dissociative disorders    
Eating and sleep disorders    
Impulse-control disorders    
Adjustment disorders    
Axis II Personality disorders and mental retardation Personality disorders Cluster A (odd/eccentric) Paranoid
Schizoid
Schizotypal
Cluster B (erratic/emotional) Borderline
Narcissistic
Antisocial
Cluster c (anxious/fear) Avoidant
Dependent
Obsessive compulsive
Mental retardation Fetal alcohol syndrome  
Down’s syndrome  
Axis III General medical conditions Medical conditions affecting the mental disorders Asthma  
Diabetes  
Cancer  
Axis IV Psychosocial and environmental problems Family problems    
School problems    
Legal problems    
Axis V Global assessment of functioning (GAF) 0-10 Need hospitalization  
80-100 No/minor symptoms  
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Personality: A Summary of Theories, Concepts, and Stages

Personality: A Summary of Theories, Concepts, and Stages

 

Theories

Concepts/Stages

Features/Stages

Features/Examples

The psychoanalytic view

(Freud and followers)

Early childhood experiences and unconscious forces can shape behaviors    
The developmental “crisis” (stages with conflicts)
Trait theory Essential traits for personality    
The humanistic view

(Maslow and Rogers)

The innate desire to be good    
The social-cognitive view

(Bandura)

Behavior-internal processes-environmental feedback interactions decide personality    
Biological perspectives Biological basis (genetics, neuroscience, etc.)    
Personality components

(Freud)

Id (“it”) Primitive and unconscious  
The pleasure principle
Ego (“I”) The reality principle  
Superego (“over I”) Conscience; neurosis  
Defense mechanisms Rationalization Making up reasons
Sublimation Distracting attention
Projection Accusing others
Displacement Venting anger at another source
Reaction formation Saying opposite feelings
Undoing To “undo” an act
Denial Not admitting
Repression “Forgetting”
Suppression Trying not to think about it
Regression Acting younger
Daydreaming Retreating to fantasy
Personality development stages

(Freud)

Oral 0-1 year  
Anal 1-3 years Anal-retentive (over-controlled)
Anal-expulsive (under-controlled)
“Phallic” 3-6 years Oedipal/Electra complex
“Latency” 6 years – puberty  
Genital Adolescence – adulthood  
Carl G. Jung Transpersonal Animus, anima  
Collective unconscious
Archetypes (figure, images in cultures can shape personality)
Alfred Adler Inferiority complexes in early childhood    
Will-to-power
Strive for superiority
Karen Horney Basic anxiety Moving toward others for acceptance  
Moving against others for control
Moving away others for independence
Traits Basic interactive features that shape personality    
5 personality factors (“OCEAN”)

(McCrae and Costa, Goldberg)

Openness E.g., Creative E.g., Practical
Conscientiousness E.g., Responsible E.g., Careless
Extraversion E.g., Outgoing E.g., Shy
Agreeableness E.g., Easygoing E.g., Argumentativeness
Neuroticism E.g., Insecure E.g., Confident
Humanistic theories Self-actualization (Maslow)    
Self-concept (Rogers)    
Social-cognitive perspective

(Bandura)

Reciprocal determinism    
Self-efficacy
Locus of control

(Rotter)

Expectancy Internal locus of control  
External locus of control  
Personality tests Objective tests (self-report) Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) True-false format
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Based on Jung’s theory, forced-choice format
Projective tests (for unconscious processes) Rorschach Inkblot Test 10 blots
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Stimulus cards; story analysis
Rotter Incomplete Sentences Blank Incomplete statements
Human Figure Drawings/House-Person-Tree Drawing
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Social Psychology: A Summary of Theories and Concepts

Social Psychology: A Summary of Theories and Concepts

 

Theories

Concepts

Features

Attribution theory Explanations of behaviors  
Dispositional Internal attribution  
Situational External attributions  
Fundamental attribution error Underestimation of the influence of the situation on actions  
Self-serving biases Bask in reflected glory (“BIRG”); cut off reflected failure (“CORF”)  
Just world hypothesis To have a feeling of control, to feel safe  
Persuasion Changing attitudes when behaviors conflict  
“Art of persuasion”  (Cialdini): 6 dynamics Reciprocity/reciprocation Give and giving back
Social proof Peer pressure
Liking/attractiveness Attractive people are more influential
Scarcity In short supply
Authority Knowledgeable people are more influential
Consistency With previous behaviors
Other techniques (Cialdini and others) The foot-in-the-door technique Small to large requests
The door-in-the-face technique Small requests after inappropriate requests
The that’s-not-all technique Additional requests
The bait-and-switch technique Additional requests after an attractive offer
Sleeper effect/Minority influence Rejected at the beginning but changing attitudes later  
Interpersonal attraction Similarity  
Reciprocity of feeling  
Proximity  
The mere exposure effect The primacy effect
Social exchange theory  
Prejudice “In-group/out-group”  
Scapegoating Oppressed group members blame on each other or weaker groups  
Groups influences Task performance Social facilitation
Social loafing (diffused responsibility)
Group decision making Groupthink
Conformity factors Group size
High status group
Unanimous in the group
Insecure in the group
Monitoring in the group
Societal standards in the group
Responsibility toward others Bystander effects Diffusion of responsibility
Pluralistic ignorance
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Emotions, Stress, and Coping: A Summary of Theories and Concepts

Emotions, Stress, and Coping: A Summary of Theories and Concepts

 

Categories/Concepts/Structures

Theories

Features

Features/Contents

The autonomic system Cannon-Bard theory 2 messages from the brain area processing sensory information To the autonomic system
  To the limbic system
James-Lange theory Begins in the cerebral cortex, based on physical responses  
Schachter and Singer’s two-factor theory Cerebral cortex  
Autonomic response Situation assessment
Amygdala Emotion intra-personally    
Limbic system-face interactions Facial expression    
Basic emotions Evidences Facial expression  
Cross-cultural agreement  
Representative theories Ekman’s 6 basic emotions Anger

Disgust

Fear

Happiness

Sadness

Surprise

Plutchik’s 8 basic emotions Acceptance

Anger

Anticipation

Disgust

Fear

Joy

Sadness

Surprise

Stress theories Fight-or-flight reaction    
Eustress Good  
Distress Bad  
Acute stress Short-term  
Chronic stress Regularly  
The general adaptation syndrome (Seyle’s model) Alarm  
Resistance  
Exhaustion  
Stress degree factors (Lazarus) Appraisal  
Physical, material, psychological resources  
Other stressors  
Stress-illness Burnout  
Related psychological disorders Acute stress disorder (ASD)  
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)  
Psychosomatic diseases Skin disorders  
Ulcers  
Allergies  
Stress effects on health Negative beliefs, destructive lifestyles, poor health maintenance  
Coping strategies Factors Attitude  
Social support  
Constructive coping Realistic evaluation of the stressors  
Direct confrontation of the stressors  
Emotional response management  
Control of potentially harmful reactions  
Effective actions  
Systematic problem solving Problem defining
Brainstorming
Selecting the best possible strategy
Looking for social support  
Seeing the problem differently  
Constructive coping for non-negotiable problems (distraction) Relaxation  
Exercise  
Hobbies  
Humor  
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Motivation: A Summary of Theories, Concepts, and Substances

Motivation: A Summary of Theories, Concepts, and Substances

 

Theories

Concepts/Structures

Substances/Features

Features

Instinct theory Unconsciously motivated behaviors (Freud)    
Drive theory Drive-reduction/homeostatic theory Optimum arousal Yerkes-Dodson law/Inverted-U Hypothesis
Incentive theory Operant conditioning    
Overjustification effect Motivation is decreased by incentives  
Psychological/humanistic theory Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Self-actualization needs  
Esteem needs  
Belongingness/love/social needs  
Safety needs  
Physiological needs (air, water, food)  
Hunger Hypothalamus areas Lateral The drive to eat
Ventromedial Digestive rate
Paraventricular Short term satiety
Hormones responding to hypothalamic activity Insulin Glucose to nutrition
Glucagon Fat to glucose
Cholecystokinin (CCK) Fullness feeling
Orexin Triggers hunger
Leptin Reduces appetite
Body weight regulation (long term) Energy balance model  
Set-point theory  
Settling point theory  
Achievement McClelland’s trait list of high nAch (the drive to achieve) Challenging tasks  
Competitive  
Clearly defined goals, useful feedback  
Responsible for the outcome  
Persistence  
More accomplished  
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Lifespan Development: Concepts, Stages, and Features

Lifespan Development: Concepts, Stages, and Features

 

Areas

Theories/Concepts/Stages

Features/Stages

Explanations/Sub-Stages

Associated Concepts/Features/Problems

Developmental psychology Cognition Reasoning, thought    
Psychosocial Personality, behavior in social environments    
Critical periods Prenatal    
Developmental milestones    
Sensitive/optimal periods Gains at other times    
Physical development Cephalocaudal “head to tail”; neurological, skeletal, muscular development    
Proximodistal “near to far”    
Differentiation Skills grow over extended periods    
Environmental factors Socioeconomic status (SES)      
Untreated illnesses      
Ethnicity/culture      
Emotional disturbance      
Prenatal development First trimester (3-4 inches) Germinal period (1st week) Teratogens Central nervous system depressants

Central nervous system stimulants

Sexually transmitted diseases

Other infectious diseases

Environmental toxins/pollutants

Embryonic period (7 weeks)    
Fetal period (8-12 week)    
Second trimester (12-14 inches) Brain cells    
Bones    
Third trimester (20-22 inches) (the last 3 months) The “finishing period”    
After birth Fontanels and sutures Spaces (18-20) months, seams (until adolescence)  
Appearance of face and eyes Facial communication  
Eye and ear functioning    
Brain growth Most dramatic in the first year; more time in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (reflexes: stepping, tonic) Myelination
Synaptogenesis
Pruning
Lateralization
Motor milestones in the first 2 years Rolls over (6 weeks-5 months)

Grasps (2-5 months)

Sits (4.5-8.5 months)

Stands (4.5-10.5 months)

Standing alone (9.5-14.5 months)

Walks (10.5-15 months)

Stacks 2 cubes (11.5-21.5 months)

Climbs/walking up stairs (13.5-23.5 months)

 
Cognitive development Maturation      
Learning      
Training      
Piaget’s schema processes Assimilate    
Accommodation    
Piaget’s theory Sensorimotor stage (0-2 years) 0-2 weeks Reflex
2 weeks-4 months Primary circular reactions/habits
4-8 months Secondary circular reactions/coordinated schemes
8-12 months Schemes coordinated for achievement of ends
11-18 months Inventing new means
1.5 – 2 years Manipulation of mental representation and insight
Preoperational stage (2-7 years) Problems Egocentrism
Centration
Irreversibility
Classification difficulties
Seriation difficulties
Lack of causal reasoning
Transductive reasoning
Concrete operations (7-12 years) Hard to deal with abstract concepts;

inability for hypothetical problem solving

 
Formal operations (> 12 years) Capable of abstract thinking Regressions: superficial egocentrism, the “imaginary audience”; the “personal fable”
Language development Receptive language milestones 14 days: can differentiate human voices

8 weeks: can differentiate familiar voices

4 months: can recognize own names

6 months: can respond to rhythms

1 year: can follow simple commands

   
Productive language milestones 8 weeks: cooing

6-10 months: babbling

10-18 months: the first words

20-24 months: simple sentences

   
Vocabulary sizes 18 months: 50 words

24 months: 300 words

3 years: 900 words

4 years: complex sentences

5 years: 2000 words

6 years: 8000-14000 words

   
Piaget: problems Overextensions; overregularization    
Moral reasoning development Piaget’s two-stage theory Heteronymous morality    
Autonomous morality    
Kohlberg’s stage theory Level 1: preconventional morality Stage 1: obedience and punishment  
Stage 2: instrumental morality  
Level 2: conventional morality Stage 3: good boy/girl morality  
Stage 4: law and order  
Level 3: postconventional morality Stage 5: social contract  
Stage 6: principles of conscience  
Bandura’s social-cognitive learning theory By watching and imitating    
Psychosocial development Attachment theory (Gesell and Lorenz) Imprinting    
Freudian Oral stage    
Evolutionary (Bowlby) Survival    
Harlow Parenting is more than feeding;

contact comfort

   
Ainsworth Strange situation    
Kagan Inborn temperament    
Erikson’s 8 stages Conflict: Basic trust vs. mistrust 0-1 year Resolution: caregivers establish trust
Autonomy vs. shame, doubt 1-3 years A sense of independence
Initiative vs. guilt 3-6 years A sense of purpose
Industry vs. inferiority 6-12 years A sense of competence
Identity vs. role confusion 12-mid-20s A sense of identity, making plans
Intimacy vs. isolation Mid-20s – mid-40s Close relationships
Generativity vs. stagnation Mid-40s – mid-60s Contributions
Ego integrity vs. despair >mid-60s Meaningful
Aging Rowe and Kahn Healthy aging    

 

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Concepts of Cognition, Thinking, Language, and Intelligence

Concepts of Cognition, Thinking, Language, and Intelligence

 

Concepts

Contents

Related Concepts

Cognition Understanding  
Interpreting
Organizing
Remembering
Problem solving
Decision making
Creating
Mental representations Symbols  
Language
Concepts
Images
Observational learning Cognitive map  
Concepts Natural concepts Fuzzy concepts
Artificial concepts Formal concepts
Prototype The best example  
Atypical example  
Stereotypes Social prototypes
Decision making strategies Compensatory Nonrisky decisions
Algorithmic Step-by-step processes
Trial and error Trying solutions and discarding errors
Heuristic “Rule-of-thumb” strategies
Insight Novel solutions
Problem solving strategies Representativeness heuristic/bias Using prototype features
Availability heuristic/bias Easily available
Confirmation bias Selective memory
Overconfidence Overestimation of beliefs
Anchoring bias/effect Influences from hints
Functional fixedness Influences from common functions
Mental set Collections of perspectives
Human language Symbols Letters, words, signs
Syntax Grammar
Abstraction, displacement Representations of ideas, concepts
Language areas in the brain Left hemisphere of the cortex Arcuate fasciculus, Wernicke’s area, Broca’s area
Language and culture Sapir-Whorf hypothesis Linguistic relativity
  Linguistic determinism
Intelligence: a construct Behaviorist Learn from experience
Cognitive Judge and reason
Utilitarian Dealing with people, objects, symbols
“Unitary” intelligence factor (Charles Spearman and Raymond Cattell) Psychometric approach Intelligence can be precisely measured
Fluid intelligence Dynamic including reasoning, decision making
Crystallized intelligence Acquired skills applied in certain environments
Multiple intelligence (L. L. Thurstone, Gardner, Sternberg) Seven intelligence types (Howard Gardner) Logical-mathematical intelligence
Linguistic intelligence
Special intelligence
Kinesthetic intelligence
Musical intelligence
Interpersonal intelligence
Intrapersonal intelligence
Triarchic (3-factor) theory of intelligence (Robert Sternberg) Analytic skills
Practical intelligence
Creative intelligence
IQ/intelligence tests Standardized  
Normal curve  
Representativeness  
Reliability  
Validity Face validity: can measure what it says to measure
Construct validity: can measure the quality
Predictive validity: can predict other performances
Content validity: should cover the domain
Criterion validity: can predict performance in the domain
Incremental validity: may strengthen the predictive validity
Convergent validity: similar to relevant results
Current IQ/cognitive ability tests The Stanford-Binet IQ test English; individual
The Wechsler scales English; individual
Raven’s progressive matrices Reasoning ability; individual
Scholastic assessment test English; group
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Memory Stages and Concepts

Memory Stages and Concepts

 

Concepts

Explanations

Sensory memory The stage that information registers or is “held”, decided by attention.
Short-term/working memory The encoding/consolidation process to prepare for storage;

the limbic system, esp. the hippocampus is involved, the front lobes organize information

Long-term memory Procedural/implicit (nondeclarative): recognition memory
Declarative/explicit (declarative): visual, semantic, episodic
Stress Acute stress enhances memories; chronic stress is detrimental
Retrieval The process of accessing memories; priming: environmental associations of memories
Ordinary forgetting Failure to encode: not fully processed information
Failure to retain: “use it or lose it”
Failure to retrieve: “tip of the tongue” (TOT) phenomenon: not getting the right cue;

interference by similar information;

retroactive interference: old information is blocked by new information;

proactive interference: a new memory is interfered by the old memory;

serial order effect: primacy effect – only the beginning parts are remembered;

recency effect – only the last parts are remembered

 

Schacter’s (2001) 7 Sins of Memory

 

Sins

Explanations

Problems

Absent-mindedness Not enough attention Encoding failure
Bias Details are distorted by attitudes and beliefs Memory distortion; confirmation bias; self-consistency bias
Blocking Not able to recall the known information interference; serial order effect; “tip of the tongue” (TOT) phenomenon
Misattribution Wrong source connections Sources amnesia; memory distortion
Persistence Recall of unpleasant memories Stress; phobic reactions; flashbacks; intrusive thoughts
Suggestibility Questions affect recalled details False memories; memory distortion
Transience Fading memories Memory decay

 

Amnesia, Forgetting, False Memories

 

Concepts

Explanations/Associated concepts

Dissociative amnesia Malingering behavior; factitious disorders; repression caused by stress, emotional trauma
False memories Distorted memories; reconstructive
Organic amnesia Retrograde amnesia: loss of memories before the injury
Anterograde amnesia: not able to have new memories
Aging and memory Alzheimer’s disease: lack of acetylcholine
Aging and memory: healthy lifestyle can help reduce the loss of memory
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Concepts of Learning: Conditioning, Reinforcement

Concepts of Learning: Conditioning, Reinforcement

 

 

Classical Conditioning

 

Concepts

Responses

Unconditioned stimulus (UCS): naturally induces a response Unconditioned response (UCR)
Neutral stimulus No specific reactions
Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) + Neutral stimulus Association: Neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus (CS)) -> Conditioned response (CR)
Stimulus generalization Similar stimulus -> conditioned response
Extinction No more responses to the conditioned stimulus
Spontaneous recovery Reoccurrence of responses after the extinction
“Avoidance prevents extinction” Avoidance is not a good strategy
Aversive counterconditioning Pair the stimulus with a noxious stimulus
Systematic desensitization Using gradually increasing amounts of stimulus

 

 

Operant Conditioning

 

Concepts

Explanations

Subcategories

Types

Thorndike’s law of effect Pleasant consequences can strengthen the response, while unpleasant consequences weaken the responses    
Skinner’s operant Learned behaviors operate on the environment; behaviors can be shaped by consequences    
Reinforcers/reinforcement Increase the occurrence Primary/natural reinforcers, e.g., food; secondary/conditional reinforcers Positive reinforcement (by application)
Negative reinforcement (by removal)
Punishers/punishment Decrease the occurrence   Positive punishment (by application)
Negative punishment (by removal)

 

Maintaining Behaviors: A Schedule of Reinforcement

 

Concepts

Explanations/subtypes

Subtypes

Continuous reinforcement Reinforce each time  
Partial reinforcement schedules The ratio-based schedule: based on the response numbers The fixed-ratio (FR) schedule: with fixed numbers
The variable-ratio (VR) schedule
The interval-based schedule: around the time The fixed-interval (FI) schedule
The variable-ratio (VI) schedule

 

Other Learning Concepts

 

Concepts

Explanations

Observational learning (Tolman) Learning can occur by observation in a latent way, without shaping consequences
Social learning (Bandura, “Bobo doll experiment”) Vicarious conditioning (via observing consequences); observation can influence thinking and learning

 

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Sleep, Circadian Rhythm, Hypnosis, and Meditation

Sleep, Circadian Rhythm, Hypnosis, and Meditation

 

 

Circadian Rhythm

 

Relevant Brain Structures

Locations

Influences

Pineal gland Close to the hypothalamus Rapid eye movement (REM)

Melatonin (low in the morning, high in the evening)

Reticular activating system (RAS) Brain stem
Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) Hypothalamus

 

Sleep Stages

 

Stages

Brain waves

Features

Functions

Stage 1 non-REM (NREM) Alpha -> theta Light, hallucinations  
Stage 2 NREM Theta + sleep spindles, K-complexes Deep  
Stage 3 NREM Theta -> delta (20-50%) Deep  
Stage 4 NREM Delta (50-100%) Deep Needed for growth, healing, learning consolidation, restoration
REM Beta Motor paralysis, dreaming, hallucination Learning consolidation, CNS rest

 

Sleep Disorders

 

Sleep disorders

Symptoms

Associations

Insomnia Not able to sleep or waking up early Stress, depression, fatigue
Narcolepsy Too much daytime sleepiness; sleep attacks Genetic factors
Parasomnias Sleep walking, night terrors, teeth grinding, bruxism More common in children; poly-drug abuse in adults
REM sleep behavior disorder Punching and acting in dreams More common in elderly males; brain stem malfunction
Restless legs syndrome Sudden movements of lower limbs during sleep Stress, depression
Sleep apnea Repeated breathing stop during sleep More common in males older than 50 and overweight people
Sleep paralysis Unable to move for a while after waking Stress

 

 

Hypnosis, Meditation, Daydreaming: Varied States of Consciousness

 

Type

Features

Applications

Daydreaming Turning thoughts inward  
Meditation Refocusing of concentration; alpha brain waves Relaxation
Hypnosis Refocusing of attention Can be used for pain and stress management
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Perception: Concepts and Theories

Perception: Concepts and Theories

 

 

Perception: A complex process begins in the brain

 

Perceptual set: A “frame of mind” that expectations affect the interpretation of inputs.

 

Culture and perception: Nature and experience influence our perception, e.g., the Muller-Lyer Illusion.

 

 

Gestalt Laws of Perception: The Whole Is Not the Same As The Sum of The Parts

 

The Laws

The Meanings

Closure Our brain will “close” a broken shape/figure.
Common fate Things moving at the same speed/direction are thought as in a group/unit.
Figure-and-ground relationship The decision of the background or figures/foreground in a reversible figure.
Good continuation A smooth curve connecting objects are considered as a continuous contour.
Proximity Things grouped closely are seen as having relationships between them.
Similarity Things with similar features such as color and shape are grouped together.
The central law If one has to work too hard to perceive, one will resist it.
The principle of simplicity The brain deals with information to generate the simplest and most stable explanation.

 

 

Motion Perception: Influenced by Cultural Heritage

 

Illusions

Explanations/Applications

Induced motion A figure is perceived as moving even though only the background is moving.
Perceptual constancies The size, brightness, and shape of a moving object are perceived as unchanging.
The stroboscopic effect Two closely located flashing lights are perceived as one light moving quickly. Used in movies.

 

 

Depth/Distance Perception

 

Cue

Monocular (one eye) / Binocular (two eyes)

Explanations

Aerial perspective Monocular Faraway details are hard to see.
Convergence Binocular Eye muscle strain from inward rotation means closer objects.
Linear perspective Monocular Faraway parallel lines seem closer together.
Motion parallax Monocular Faster moving objects are closer.
Overlap Monocular The object blocking others is closer.
Relative size Monocular The larger object among similar objects is closer.
Retinal disparity Binocular Faraway objects have less disparity.
Texture gradient Monocular Faraway objects are fuzzy.

 

 

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The Eight Senses: Touch, Pain, Balance and Kinesthesis

The Eight Senses: Touch, Pain, Balance and Kinesthesis

 

 

Types

Physical stimulus

Equipment

Sub-Structures

Roles of the Brain

Theories

Touch Cutaneous receptors for stimuli:

pressure, vibration, heat, cold, etc.

Hair follicle ending (in the skin): for hair displacement

Ruffini endings (under epidermis): for pressure

 

Krause corpuscle (lips, tongue, genitals): for pressure

 

Pacinian corpuscle (deep skin layers): for vibration (150-300 Hz)

 

Meissner corpuscle (deep hairless skin layers): for vibration (20-40 Hz)

 

Merkel discs (hairless skin top layer): for pressure

 

Thermoreceptors (under epidermis): for temperature (30-43o)

 

Cold receptors (under epidermis): for temperature (20-35 o)

Receptors -> action potential -> afferent nerve tracts -> spinal column -> thalamus -> parietal lobes (cerebral cortex) Primary somatosensory cortex, motor cortex:

frontal lobe (elaboration of thought, mastication, motor elaboration, swallowing, tongue);

occipital lobe (bilateral vision, contralateral vision), cerebellum;

parietal lobe (sensory elaboration, salivation);

temporal lobe (perceptual judgment, visual and auditory recollection, hearing);

motor (arm, leg, hand, lips, articulation);

sensory (arm, leg, hand, lips, tongue, mouth);

The sensory homunculus

Phantom limb phenomenon:

the brain has specific space for the limb, stimulation in neighboring areas

-> cause physical sensation

Pain Nociception:

an unpleasant response caused by tissue damage and emotional responses as warning messages to avoid self-injury

Nociceptor: free nerve endings for sending pain messages (action potentials -> afferent nerve tracts -> spinal cord)   Pain + touch messages  -> primary somatosensory cortex Gate control theory:

pain messages have to get through a neuronal gateway -> proceed/block

Substance P: elevate pain signals Pain -> brain -> emotional response (with memory in the limbic system) -> avoid future stimuli
Endorphins: decrease substance P’s effects Hypnosis, placebo effect -> pain relief
Balance Vestibular sense:

head position, head/body moving speed

Semicircular canals: in different directions, with fluid, hair cells   Posture, movements, self-protection Motion sickness:

conflicts of information between the balance system (e.g., no motion) and the visual system (e.g., motion)

Otolith organs: otoliths (calcium carbonate particles) -> hair cells -> cranial nerve 8 -> the brain
Kinesthesis Limb and joint motions, weights;

procedural memory

Proprioceptors/mechanoreceptors:

Muscle spindle in skeletal muscles for muscle stretching;

Golgi tendon organs for tension in tendons;

Joint receptors around joints for joint motions

  Muscle, tendons, joint information -> brain regions  

 

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The Eight Senses: Smell and Taste

The Eight Senses: Smell and Taste

 

 

Types

Physical stimulus

Equipment

Sub-Structures

Role of the Brain

Theories

Olfaction (smell) Chemical molecules in the air Molecules -> inhaled via the nostrils, mouth -> nasal cavity -> olfactory cilia, olfactory epithelium (covered with olfactory receptors) -> odor molecules dissolved -> stimulate the receptors -> action potentials -> olfactory nerve tracts -> the brain Olfactory nerve fibers, gland, dendrite, supporting cell, olfactory cilia Olfactory bulb (the smell center) -> neural messages -> temporal lobes, limbic system -> brain (drive and emotion centers)

e.g., a familiar smell -> emotional, nostalgic

 
Gustation (taste) Chemical molecules in the mouth for detecting unhealthy or nutritious (e.g., sweet, salty) substances On the surface of the tongue, in the cheeks, the mouth roof, the throat back: Fungiform papilla (taste bud), each with 50-150 receptor cells with microvilli Taste bud structure: taste pore, gustatory/taste hair, tongue epithelium, taste bud, gustatory/taste cell, supporting cell, basal cell, sensory nerve fiber Action potentials -> cranial nerves 7, 9 -> brain stem -> medulla -> thalamus -> limbic system, cerebral cortex Individual variation in taste sensitivity: nontaster -> supertaster

 

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The Eight Senses: Hearing

The Eight Senses: Hearing

 

 

Types

Physical Stimulus

Equipment

The Role of the Brain

Theories

Hearing Sound waves (air pressure changes in compression and expansion through space) features:

frequency of cycles (pitch – high/low sounds from vibration rates; hertz – frequency),

intensity (amplitude, loudness, measured in decibels – vibrating are molecule density),

timbre (a complex mix of waves)

The outer ear: sound waves -> pinna (auricle) -> external auditory canal

 

 

 

Temporal lobes (cortical tissue for auditory processing) -> auditory nerves -> midbrain -> primary auditory cortex (for narrow frequency ranges) The human hearing range: 20 hertz – 20,000 hertz.

 

Temporal coding/frequency principle: the lower pitches (20-4000 Hz)

-> synchronal vibration of the basilar membrane; the sensory neurons have the action potentials with the same frequency as the sound

 

Place coding/place principle: the higher pitches (>5000 Hz) -> the basilar membrane in sync with sound waves, but only small groups of hair cells respond

 

Different frequencies of sound waves -> vibration of different basilar membrane areas

 

Overlap of temporal and place coding: 1000-5000 Hz (human speech range)

 

Conduction deafness (can still hear own voices): failure of the middle ear bones (the hammer, the anvil, and the stirrup)

 

Nerve deafness: with damaged cochlea, the hair cells/ auditory nerve; may be caused by loudness, heredity, and multiple sclerosis (MS).

The middle ear: eardrum (tympanic membrane) -> 3 ossicles: malleus (hammer), incus (anvil), stapes (stirrup)

 

The inner ear: oval window, round window, semicircular canals, vestibulocochlear, Eustachian tube, cochlea (basilar membrane, organ of Corti, hairlike receptors) -> auditory nerve -> auditory cortex

 

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The Eight Senses: Vision

The Eight Senses: Vision

 

 

Types

Physical stimulus

Equipments

Sub-Structures

Role of the Brain

Theories

Vision Light waves (the electromagnetic spectrum from red to violet visible to the human eyes) Cornea: protection, light-gathering

 

Light -> sclera (white), aqueous humor (outer eye liquid) -> pupil

 

Iris (the muscle controlling the dilation/constriction of the pupil size based on the light level and sympathetic nervous system activation);

 

Light -> lens  accommodation (size and thickness change) -> vitreous humor (eyeball jellylike fluid) -> retina (neurons for light energy transduction)

Retina: photoreceptor using photopigments: rods (120-125 million thin neurons at the edges for dim light);

cones (6-7 million thick neurons in the center fovea for bright light, color, detail)

Optic chiasm: the crossover point that left visual field (retina) projections -> right hemisphere; right visual field (retina) projections -> left hemisphere

 

Visual information -> optic tract -> lateral geniculate nucleus (in the thalamus) -> primary visual cortex (in the occipital lobe), visual association areas (in the temporal lobe) -> finer processing

 

Feature detectors: neurons for processing visual stimulus types (size, curve, contour)

 

Lateral inhibition: dark backgrounds make things look brighter

Trichromatic theory: 3 types of cones in the retina (red-, green-, and blue-sensitive) corresponding to short, medium, and long light waves.

Pros: can explain color blindness with a lack of cone type.

Cons: cannot explain afterimages.

Middle layer: bipolar neurons, horizontal cells, amacrine cells Opponent process theory: cones work in pairs (e.g., red-green, blue-yellow) that work in opposition; combinations may also be stimulated.
Outer layer ganglion cells: optic nerve Integrated theory: the trichromatic and opponent process theories work at different stages; the former with additional processing in the ganglion cells, the later in the thalamus and occipital lobes (where neurons work in opponent ways).
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Concepts about Sensations

Concepts about Sensations

 

Concepts

Explanations

Sub-concepts/Examples

Explanations

Sensation Detection and translation of physical stimulus (sound, light, texture, flavor, etc.) into action potentials via receptor cells in the peripheral nervous system    
Transduction The process the stimuli are turned into neural signals    
Thresholds To detect a stimulus Absolute threshold Detection of a stimulus >= 50% of the time ideally
Subliminal “Below the threshold”, the input cannot be detected >= 50% of the time
Difference threshold (just noticeable difference (JND)) The smallest difference that can be detected >= 50% of the time
Weber’s law (hypothesis) Detectable changes are proportional to the original stimulus strength – the stronger the stimulus, the bigger the increase needed to feel the difference
Sensory adaptation The process that the brain reduces the priority of message to “get used to it” Hypnosis The person (usually with the guidance of the hypnotist) focuses on certain thoughts/sensations and ignores others (e.g., pain signals)
Perception The interpretation of messages from stimuli    

 

Sensations

 

Sensations

Common Features

Vision  
Hearing  
Smell The chemical senses (molecules of odor)
Taste Chemical senses (molecules of flavor)
Touch The body senses
Balance The body senses
Kinesthetic (weight, strain, position of joints, muscles) The body senses
Pain The body senses
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Structures and Functions of the Brain

Brain Structures and Functions

 

 

Main Structures

Locations

Substructures

Subdivisions/Features

Functions

Brain stem The lowest area of the brain, on the top of the spinal cord; life support structures with neurons for sensory/motor integration Medulla (medulla oblongata) Hindbrain Regulates basic autonomic functions including circulations, breathing, and digestion
Pons (“bridge”) Hindbrain Forebrain-hindbrain station (cerebral cortex)
Cerebellum Hindbrain Integration of motor function, multiple sensory stimuli
Reticular formation (RAS, reticular activating system) Hindbrain Neuron networks for general arousal during consciousness from deep sleep to wide awake
Substantia nigra Midbrain Regulation of motor functions with dopamine activities
Tectum (“roof”) Midbrain Direction of sensory stimuli caused responses
Superior and inferior colliculi Midbrain Auditory and visual stimuli caused responses
Nucleus ruber (“red nucleus”) Midbrain Coordination of voluntary motor functioning
Limbic system Structures on both sides of the brain; associated with life-sustaining drives, emotion, memory Hypothalamus Suprachiasmatic nucleus, pineal gland Regulates the autonomic nervous system; hunger, thirst, sex drives, etc.; orders to the pituitary gland; regulates consciousness cycles; sleep patterns, wakefulness
Thalamus Closely allied to the cerebral cortex Sensory information (except olfactory/smell stimuli) -> cerebral cortex; attention;

Disease: autism

Hippocampus   New memories
Amygdala Almond-shaped Emotion-memory responses; connects unpleasant emotions (anger, fear, sadness), memory, and the stimuli
Basal ganglia Groups of neurons Planning, generating movement;

Disease: Parkinson’s disease

Cerebral cortex/cerebrum Uppermost, largest region, about 9 square feet, 1 inch thick; gray matter (outer), white matter (under) Occipital lobes The primary visual cortex Visual processing
Temporal lobes With primary auditory cortex More visual processing; language processing
Parietal lobes Primary somatosensory cortex Touch information processing (large areas to the hands, fingers, face, and lips); visual-spatial processing
Frontal lobes Primary motor cortex; prefrontal cortex Planning, exercising voluntary movement; language processing; intelligent behaviors (focusing, attention, social information interpretation, and emotion processing)
Association areas Scattered across the cerebral cortex Sensory processing; combination of sensory and motor information

 

The Two Sides of the Brain

 

Structures

Functions

Note

Left hemisphere Language, speech, verbal memory Integrated operation is needed
Right hemisphere Nonverbal processing, pattern/face recognition, spatial information, emotional cues interpretation
Corpus callosum Communication between the two hemispheres

 

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Brain Imaging Techniques

Brain Imaging Techniques

 

Imaging Techniques

Materials

Mechanisms

Applications

CAT (computerized axial tomography) X-ray pictures taken around the patient Computer-reconstructed pictures in axial slices Brain lesion or tumor detection
DTI (diffusion tensor imaging) Similar to MRI Detection of molecular motions of the body water Detection of interactions between the brain areas during cognitive, emotional, and physical processes
EEG/MEG (electroencephalography/magneto-encephalography) Electrodes on the scalp Recording the brain wave activities Changes of brain activities, including during sleep
MRI/fMRI (magnetic resonance imaging/functional magnetic resonance imaging) A powerful magnet Detection of the protons in the hydrogen atom nuclei of the body water Brain structure images; detection of active brain areas during cognitive, emotional, and physical processes
PET (positron emission tomography) Low levels of radioactive materials in the bloodstream Track of brain activities Active brain areas during cognitive or physical processes, and emotional responses

 

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Functions of Neurotransmitters

Functions of Neurotransmitters

 

Neurotransmitters Functions Disorders from insufficiency Disorders from oversupply
Acetylcholine Memory; muscle movement (contraction) Alzheimer’s disease, dementia Convulsions/spider bite/nerve gas
Dopamine Cognition; sensory; movement Parkinson’s disease, sensory deficits, tremors Delusions, hallucinations, methamphetamine addiction
Endorphins Suppress pain; improve good feelings Pain; stress Euphoria; dependence (opiate addiction)
GABA Reduces brain activity levels; visual processing Visual deficits (fetal alcohol syndrome); anxiety Sedation (alcohol/sedative addiction)
Glutamate Primary excitatory neurotransmitter Manic episodes Depression
Norepinephrine Learning; memory; “fight or flight” response Depression Anxiety
Serotonin Mood; sleep regulation Aggression; depression Mood disorders (manic episodes)
Substance P Transmits pain information Insufficient sensitivity to tissue damage Stress; pain
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Central Nervous System Communication: Neurons and Glia

Central Nervous System Communication: Neurons and Glia

 

Cells/structures Types Functions Features
Neurons Sensory neurons Transform physical energy -> sense messages -> the brain Compose the afferent tracts of the nervous system
Motor neurons Transmit information from the brain -> muscles, organs Compose the efferent tracts of the nervous system
Interneurons Transmit communications between neurons Most plentiful in the brain
Glia/glial cells: supporting cells (composed mostly of fat) Structural support
Faster communications between neurons, e.g., via myelin
Healing from injuries and infections
Cleaning of the wastes and dead neurons

 

 

Gray Matter and White Matter

 

Parts Cells/structures
Gray matter Neuron
Astrocyte
Capillary
Microglia
Oligodendrocyte
White matter Axon
Myelin
Unmyelinated axon
Capillary
Astrocytes
Oligodendrocyte

 

 

Structures and Functions of Neurons

 

Structures Substructures Functions
Cell membrane Holds the cell
Nucleus Chromosomes, genetic materials Growth of nervous tissues
Cell body/soma Organelles (Mitochondria, Golgi bodies) Protein production, metabolism, waste excretion
Dendrites Receptors Receiving chemical messages
Axons Myelin (to speed transmission), nodes of Ranvier (gaps in the myelin) Sending electronic signals
Synapses (gaps between the (sending) axon and the (receiving) dendrite) Presynaptic terminal, vesicles with neurotransmitters Transmission across the synapse to the receptors

 

 

The Action Potential of Neurons

 

 

Functions States Details Features
Resting potential No communication, polarization Internal charge – negative; surrounding area – positive
Action potential Depolarization Firing; positive charge -> synapse All-or-nothing (with the stimulus threshold)
Refractory period (resting); hyperpolarized
Synaptic transmission of neurotransmitters ->reuptake -> recycled
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Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): Structures and Functions

Central nervous system (CNS) Main structures Protective structures Functioning structures Connection structures
The brain (<-> cranial nerves), spinal cord ( <-> spinal nerves) Blood-brain barrier: prevents poisonous substances from entering into the brain; Skull: shield the brain from external; pia mater, dura mater: protect the brain from within Cortex: gray, wrinkled, with higher surface area – cognitive processes (thinking, remembering); structure under the cortex – emotion, memory, etc. The spinal cord: links the CNS to the PNS; sends and transmits messages; Afferent/sensory nerves: carry information from the receptors -> the spinal cord, brain; efferent/motor nerves: carry information from the CNS -> other body structures
Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Divisions Subdivisions/

substructures

Functions Connection
Somatic nervous system (SNS) Receptors, tracts in the skin, muscles, joints Transmit information for voluntary movements/reflexes  
Autonomic nervous system (ANS) Involuntary muscles, cardiac muscles, glands Self-regulation: the respiratory, circulatory, and digestive, etc.  
Sympathetic system (from preganglionic nerves – postganglionic nerves) “crisis management”: reactions to dangers -> send signals to organs/glands -> the heart beating faster, pupils dilate, faster respiration ->

dilates pupil; stimulates weak salivation; relaxes bronchi; accelerates heartbeat; inhibits activity, relaxes bladder

Sympathetic system turned on -> inhibits parasympathetic system
Parasympathetic system Transmit information for promoting digestion, rest, and restorative functions:

Contracts pupil; stimulates strong salivation; constricts bronchi; slows heartbeat; stimulates activity; contracts bladder; stimulates sex organs

 
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The Endocrine System: Hormone Categories

The Endocrine System: Hormone Categories

 

Hormones Category Functions Examples
Steroids From cholesterol Growth, sexual, reproductive functions; tissue healing Muscle-building drugs
Peptides Hormones Generation of other hormones Oxytocin
Amino acids Organic compounds   Adrenaline

 

Endocrine Glands and Hormones

 

Gland Hormones Functions/Regulations
Pineal Melatonin Circadian cycles, sleep, wakefulness
Pituitary Growth hormone Childhood growth
Prolactin Milk production in pregnant females
Oxytocin Muscle contractions (milk, labor)
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)/Luteinizing hormone (LH) Production of gametes (sex cells), reproductive functions
Thyroid Thyroxin Body metabolism
Parathyroid Parathormone Metabolism of calcium and phosphate (for the nervous system and other systems)
Thymus Thymosin Immunity, immune cells (lymphocytes; T cells)
Adrenal Adrenaline (epinephrine) Stress response, interacts with the immune system
Norepinephrine As both hormones and neurotransmitters; stress responses, mood, immune functions
Pancreas Insulin Blood-sugar levels, hunger, eating behavior
Ovary Estrogen Ova (egg cells); reproductive functions in the female productive system
Progesterone reproductive functions in the female productive system
Testes Testosterone Male secondary sex features; sex drive in males and females
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Behavioral Genetics and Evolutionary Psychology

Behavioral Genetics Methods

 

Methods Study models Characteristics Research focus Core concepts/notes
Twin studies Monozygotic/identical twins Identical genotypes; shared environment Relationships between heredity and experience Hereditability: an index of differences in people that can only be caused by genetic inheritance effects.
Adoption studies Adopted children Biological parents; adoptive parents Environmental impacts  
Family studies People in the same family Have the potential to share a trait Heredity impacts  
Genetic diseases Diseases including color-blindness, hemophilia, phenylketonuria (PKU), and Down syndrome Cause-and-effect evidence and effects of heredity The effects of genetics on schizophrenia, autism, dementia, and Alzheimer’s disease Gene-environment interactions: PKU has genetic origin but can be controlled by a regulated diet

 

Evolutionary Psychology

 

Areas Focus Background Structures Concepts Features
Evolutionary psychology Studies the effects of genetic mutations and natural selection on behavior and mental functioning. The nervous system comes from gradual genetic change. The four lobes of the cerebral cortex: visual processing – back; judgment/forethought – front; body sensation – top; hearing – sides. Modules: Psychological mechanisms have been selected for survival and contributed to evolutionary fitness, the capability to produce offspring to spread and perpetuate genes. Human intelligence, language, and personality traits including determination were “selected” for the species to thrive.
Sociobiology Studies the effects of individual behaviors in communities and group behaviors on reproductive survival.       The involvement in certain social behaviors has genetic origins.
Sociocultural evolution Meme theory Thoughts and ideas can be transmitted from mind to mind, parallels to genetic evolution.   Memes: the units of sociocultural evolution processes Elements of thought and culture can be transmitted and altered over time.
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The History and Branches of Psychology with Early Timelines

Branches  Focus Methods Founders/Pioneers Time Contributions
Structuralism Experimental psychology   William Wundt 1879 Established the first psychology lab
The basis of the structure of consciousness Introspection: studies and describes one’s own conscious processes Edward Titchener    
Cognitive psychology The study of thought Experiments Hermann Ebbinghaus 1885 Experiments on memory
How organisms understand, interpret, process, memorize, and organize information; effects on behaviors Studies the use of information in memory, reasoning, problem resolving, and decision making      
Functionalism The effects of mental procedures on behavior, adaptation and function in the environment Applications of psychology: educational, industrial, and organizational psychology William James 1890 Book: Principles of Psychology
Behaviorism The basis of operant conditioning Experiments on animal learning Edward Thorndike 1898 Experiments on animal learning
  Ivan Pavlov 1906 Associative learning processes in animals
Conditioning experiments with humans John Watson 1920 The behaviorist view
Behavioral The effects of contingencies and observational experiences on organisms’ responses The effects of associations and contingencies on learning and behavior      
Psychodynamic (clinical psychology) The effects of unconscious forces on behavior; the confliction between unconscious forces, conscious motives and environment demands Studies the effects of unconscious forces and early experiences on current behavior Sigmund Freud 1900 Book: The Interpretation of Dreams
IQ Tests   IQ Tests Alfred Binet/Theophile Simon 1905 Impacts on education, learning, cognition/thinking
Gestalt psychology The processes of perception; consciousness elements Separate aspects of experience/mind -> integrated units of meaningful information Max Wertheimer 1912 Experiments to show the phi phenomenon
Biological/neuroscience Biochemical and electrochemical processes in the nervous system, effects of hormones Studies the role of the brain and body in sensory, feeling processes, and behaviors      
Behavioral genetics The effects of gene-environment interactions on behavior Studies the effects of genetic and environmental factors on behaviors separately and interactively      
Evolutionary Selection effects on behavior; adaptive strategies toward survival, reproduction Studies the effect of natural selection on behavioral tendencies      
Humanistic The effects of inner need for self-actualization, growth, and reaching full potential on behavior Studies the effects of subjective experience on potential achievements      
Sociocultural Effects of the cultural and societal context on behavior Studies common and unique behavioral tendencies, experiences, demands, expectations, and assumptions in various cultures      

 

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