Motivation: A Summary of Theories, Concepts, and Substances






Instinct theory Unconsciously motivated behaviors (Freud)    
Drive theory Drive-reduction/homeostatic theory Optimum arousal Yerkes-Dodson law/Inverted-U Hypothesis
Incentive theory Operant conditioning    
Overjustification effect Motivation is decreased by incentives  
Psychological/humanistic theory Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Self-actualization needs  
Esteem needs  
Belongingness/love/social needs  
Safety needs  
Physiological needs (air, water, food)  
Hunger Hypothalamus areas Lateral The drive to eat
Ventromedial Digestive rate
Paraventricular Short term satiety
Hormones responding to hypothalamic activity Insulin Glucose to nutrition
Glucagon Fat to glucose
Cholecystokinin (CCK) Fullness feeling
Orexin Triggers hunger
Leptin Reduces appetite
Body weight regulation (long term) Energy balance model  
Set-point theory  
Settling point theory  
Achievement McClelland’s trait list of high nAch (the drive to achieve) Challenging tasks  
Clearly defined goals, useful feedback  
Responsible for the outcome  
More accomplished  

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