Concepts of Cognition, Thinking, Language, and Intelligence

 

Concepts

Contents

Related Concepts

Cognition Understanding  
Interpreting
Organizing
Remembering
Problem solving
Decision making
Creating
Mental representations Symbols  
Language
Concepts
Images
Observational learning Cognitive map  
Concepts Natural concepts Fuzzy concepts
Artificial concepts Formal concepts
Prototype The best example  
Atypical example  
Stereotypes Social prototypes
Decision making strategies Compensatory Nonrisky decisions
Algorithmic Step-by-step processes
Trial and error Trying solutions and discarding errors
Heuristic “Rule-of-thumb” strategies
Insight Novel solutions
Problem solving strategies Representativeness heuristic/bias Using prototype features
Availability heuristic/bias Easily available
Confirmation bias Selective memory
Overconfidence Overestimation of beliefs
Anchoring bias/effect Influences from hints
Functional fixedness Influences from common functions
Mental set Collections of perspectives
Human language Symbols Letters, words, signs
Syntax Grammar
Abstraction, displacement Representations of ideas, concepts
Language areas in the brain Left hemisphere of the cortex Arcuate fasciculus, Wernicke’s area, Broca’s area
Language and culture Sapir-Whorf hypothesis Linguistic relativity
  Linguistic determinism
Intelligence: a construct Behaviorist Learn from experience
Cognitive Judge and reason
Utilitarian Dealing with people, objects, symbols
“Unitary” intelligence factor (Charles Spearman and Raymond Cattell) Psychometric approach Intelligence can be precisely measured
Fluid intelligence Dynamic including reasoning, decision making
Crystallized intelligence Acquired skills applied in certain environments
Multiple intelligence (L. L. Thurstone, Gardner, Sternberg) Seven intelligence types (Howard Gardner) Logical-mathematical intelligence
Linguistic intelligence
Special intelligence
Kinesthetic intelligence
Musical intelligence
Interpersonal intelligence
Intrapersonal intelligence
Triarchic (3-factor) theory of intelligence (Robert Sternberg) Analytic skills
Practical intelligence
Creative intelligence
IQ/intelligence tests Standardized  
Normal curve  
Representativeness  
Reliability  
Validity Face validity: can measure what it says to measure
Construct validity: can measure the quality
Predictive validity: can predict other performances
Content validity: should cover the domain
Criterion validity: can predict performance in the domain
Incremental validity: may strengthen the predictive validity
Convergent validity: similar to relevant results
Current IQ/cognitive ability tests The Stanford-Binet IQ test English; individual
The Wechsler scales English; individual
Raven’s progressive matrices Reasoning ability; individual
Scholastic assessment test English; group

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