Category Archives: Psychoneuroimmunology

Stress, Depression, and Inflammation

Inflammation is a risk factor for many aging problems such as metabolic syndrome, Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and frailty (Jaremka et al., 2013). Inflammation can be enhanced by stress and depression, such as in the condition of troubled relationships. … Continue reading

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Depression, Antidepressant Treatment, and Herpes Zoster Vaccine

Depression and other psychological problems may influence the effects of vaccines, as studies in psychoneuroimmunology have shown. For example, the varicella zoster virus (VZV) vaccine (zoster vaccine) is used to promote the T-cell-mediated immunity (VZV-CMI) against latent VZV to prevent … Continue reading

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Psychoneuroimmunology, Stress Responses, and Chronic Inflammation

The interactions between the nervous and immune systems have been associated with psychosocial stress, peripheral inflammation, and chronic diseases (Liezmann et al., 2012; Peters et al., 2012). The concept of “inflammaging” refers to the premature aging with a pro-inflammatory condition … Continue reading

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PPARs, Psychoneuroimmunology, and Potential Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs) are a group of transcription factors that play important roles in glucose homeostasis, fatty acid and lipoprotein metabolism, and immune responses (Rolland et al., 2013). They are involved in the regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation, … Continue reading

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The C-reactive Protein, Socioeconomic Status, Stress, and Inflammation

Psychological stress has been associated with elevated inflammation and the risks of many physical illnesses such as heart disease. However, individual coping strategies may affect stress responses and inflammatory processes, leading to different health results in different people.  For example, … Continue reading

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Psychoneuroimmunology and Addictive Disorders: Potential New Therapies

Addictive disorders are often chronic relapsing problems with high health, social, and economic costs. Problems such as alcohol use disorders affect about 76.4 million people globally, and drug use disorders affect about 15.3 million people (Loftis and Huckans, 2013). As … Continue reading

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Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Stress Responses, and Personalized Care

The symptoms of trauma-related disorders include both psychological and physiological signs. Evolutionary perspectives of trauma-related disorders have related the primitive mechanisms such as sensitization and dissolution to the stress responses for survival (Baldwin, 2013). The psychological and physiological reactions are … Continue reading

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Psychoneuroimmunology of Schizophrenia and Anti-Inflammatory Drugs

Studies in the psychoneuroimmunology of schizophrenia have revealed not only the neurological and cognitive alterations, but also the continuous systemic inflammation and neuroinflammation associated with microglia activation in the disease (Debnath and Venkatasubramanian, 2013). Activated peripheral and central inflammatory responses … Continue reading

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The Associations between Depression and Chronic Diseases

Depression is becoming a leading cause of disability with loss of work days globally. It is also one of the most important risk factors in many chronic diseases. Depression plays a critical role in the etiology, progression, and results of … Continue reading

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Childhood Abuse and Higher Health Risks across Multiple Systems in Adulthood

Although childhood abuse occur in the early stages of life, the powerful adverse influences on health extend to the adulthood even decades later over the life course, enhancing the risks in multiple systems for morbidity and mortality. The early life … Continue reading

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Behavioral Problems in Cancer Patients and Survivors: Factors in Psychoneuroimmunology

Behavioral symptoms are commonly seen in cancer patients and survivors. For example, in breast cancer patients, such symptoms include depression, cognitive impairment, sleep disorders, and fatigue (Bower, 2008). These symptoms have adverse effects on the treatment results of cancers. They … Continue reading

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Effects of Psychosocial Therapies for Cancer Patients: Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)-Based Analysis

Cancer patients often have psychological problems too, such as stress and depression. It is critical to address the psychosocial demands of cancer patients. On the basis of the scientific studies of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI), methods in psychosocial therapies have been applied … Continue reading

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Music, Stress and Anxiety Relief, and Psychoneuroimmunology

Music is very beneficial for health, especially in the aspect of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI). Music has been found to have effects on various molecules including neurotransmitters, cytokines, and immunoglobulins (Fancourt et al., 2013). Music may influence the stress pathways and immune … Continue reading

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Childhood Trauma, Life Stress, and Risk Factors for Chronic Fatigue

Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a common health problem, especially in cancer survivors. To provide better care and prevention for patients with fatigue, it is important to understand the risk factors for this health problem. Studies have linked childhood stress … Continue reading

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Grief, Bereavement and Immune Dysfunction: The Role of Psychoneuroimmunology

Mental and emotional reactions such as grief and bereavement have been linked to cortisol responses and neuroendocrine activations, as well as alterations in electroencephalography (EEG) records and sleep disorders (Buckley et al., 2012). More importantly, bereavement has been suggested to … Continue reading

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Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), Cytokines, and Immune Functions

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been associated with the malfunctions of multiple biological systems and pathways, especially the cytokines of the immune system. The altered immune functions may influence crucial neurodevelopmental processes (Napolioni et al., 2013). For example, the cytokines … Continue reading

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Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Infections, Psychological Stress, and Mood Disorders

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a beta-herpes virus that may be associated with aging and many health problems. The infection of CMV can be asymptomatic. However, higher levels of serum cytokines including TNF-alpha and IL-6 have been observed in CMV infections, which … Continue reading

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Stress, Skin Disorders, and Psychoneuroimmunology

With a history of about 30 years, psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) studies the interactions among psychological activities, the nervous system, and the immune system. In the area of dermatology, many dermatologic diseases have been found to be related to mental and psychological … Continue reading

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The Integration of Immunology and Neuroscience

Although immunology and neuroscience are seemingly two different and separate disciplines, recent findings have blurred the boundaries between them. For example, a cytokine that was previously clearly defined in the immune system, interleukin-1 (IL-1), has been found to have the … Continue reading

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Psychosocial Factors and Cancer Progression: Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) Mechanisms

Psychosocial factors have been found to play important roles in the development of various diseases, including cancer progression. Such associations are mediated via the biobehavioral pathways in various patient populations, including the hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) patients (Knight et … Continue reading

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Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) and Human Social Genomics

Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) studies the relationships between behaviors and health, especially the role of immunological mechanisms underlying how the mind and body interact. That is, the interactions between the behavior and immunity, as well as the nervous system. The human adaptive … Continue reading

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Meditation while Living: A Mindfulness Way for Prevention of Illnesses

We have learned to pay attention since childhood. However, most of us hardly pay attention to our mind-body connection. Mindfulness, a form of meditation that helps you become aware of each moment, can be achieved by paying attention to your … Continue reading

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Meditation as a Path toward Homeostasis and Happiness

As a useful tool for promoting the mind-body fitness, meditation can be integrated into your fitness program to train your mind and body concurrently just the same way as you train your muscles. While improving the connections between the mind … Continue reading

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