Category Archives: Nervous System

The Nervous System

The Eight Senses: Touch, Pain, Balance and Kinesthesis

The Eight Senses: Touch, Pain, Balance and Kinesthesis     Types Physical stimulus Equipment Sub-Structures Roles of the Brain Theories Touch Cutaneous receptors for stimuli: pressure, vibration, heat, cold, etc. Hair follicle ending (in the skin): for hair displacement Ruffini … Continue reading

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The Eight Senses: Smell and Taste

The Eight Senses: Smell and Taste     Types Physical stimulus Equipment Sub-Structures Role of the Brain Theories Olfaction (smell) Chemical molecules in the air Molecules -> inhaled via the nostrils, mouth -> nasal cavity -> olfactory cilia, olfactory epithelium … Continue reading

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The Eight Senses: Hearing

The Eight Senses: Hearing     Types Physical Stimulus Equipment The Role of the Brain Theories Hearing Sound waves (air pressure changes in compression and expansion through space) features: frequency of cycles (pitch – high/low sounds from vibration rates; hertz … Continue reading

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The Eight Senses: Vision

The Eight Senses: Vision     Types Physical stimulus Equipments Sub-Structures Role of the Brain Theories Vision Light waves (the electromagnetic spectrum from red to violet visible to the human eyes) Cornea: protection, light-gathering   Light -> sclera (white), aqueous … Continue reading

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Structures and Functions of the Brain

Brain Structures and Functions     Main Structures Locations Substructures Subdivisions/Features Functions Brain stem The lowest area of the brain, on the top of the spinal cord; life support structures with neurons for sensory/motor integration Medulla (medulla oblongata) Hindbrain Regulates … Continue reading

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Brain Imaging Techniques

Brain Imaging Techniques   Imaging Techniques Materials Mechanisms Applications CAT (computerized axial tomography) X-ray pictures taken around the patient Computer-reconstructed pictures in axial slices Brain lesion or tumor detection DTI (diffusion tensor imaging) Similar to MRI Detection of molecular motions … Continue reading

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Functions of Neurotransmitters

Functions of Neurotransmitters   Neurotransmitters Functions Disorders from insufficiency Disorders from oversupply Acetylcholine Memory; muscle movement (contraction) Alzheimer’s disease, dementia Convulsions/spider bite/nerve gas Dopamine Cognition; sensory; movement Parkinson’s disease, sensory deficits, tremors Delusions, hallucinations, methamphetamine addiction Endorphins Suppress pain; improve … Continue reading

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Central Nervous System Communication: Neurons and Glia

Central Nervous System Communication: Neurons and Glia   Cells/structures Types Functions Features Neurons Sensory neurons Transform physical energy -> sense messages -> the brain Compose the afferent tracts of the nervous system Motor neurons Transmit information from the brain -> … Continue reading

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Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): Structures and Functions

Central nervous system (CNS) Main structures Protective structures Functioning structures Connection structures The brain (<-> cranial nerves), spinal cord ( <-> spinal nerves) Blood-brain barrier: prevents poisonous substances from entering into the brain; Skull: shield the brain from external; pia … Continue reading

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