Category Archives: Nervous System

The Nervous System

High Salt Intake, Anxiety, and Aging

The aging processes are related to the functional weakening in the cognitive and cardiovascular aspects. Such changes may be influenced by external stressors such as high dietary salt intake, which may affect the cardiovascular and mental conditions. A study examined … Continue reading

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Epilepsy and the Gene KCNT1 (Potassium Sodium-Activated Channel Subfamily T member 1)

The KCNT1 gene has other symbols as “ENFL5”, “SLACK”, “EIEE14”, “KCa4.1”, “Slo2.2”, and “bA100C15.2”. It is located at 9q34.3. Encoding a sodium-activated potassium channel, this gene is highly expressed in the brain (Nagase et al. 2000). It has been related … Continue reading

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The dynamic brain networks, MRI, and neuroimaging biomarkers

Processes in the cerebral cortex have the nonlinear and dynamic features. Accurate temporal coordination is necessary for the establishment of functional networks and assemblies. The brain is a complex and self-organized system with serial operations involved in highly interconnected networks. … Continue reading

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Review of Systems Biology Approaches: Detecting Signaling Pathways in Neurons

Temporal dynamics and spatial features are important factors in cell responses including synaptic plasticity. The complex network and interactions among neuronal signaling pathways result in emergent dynamical behaviors associated with synaptic plasticity. Signaling pathways can be activated by transmembrane receptors … Continue reading

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Microglia, Polydendrocytes, Ependymal cells, and the Embryonic Neural Tube

Microglia are macrophages in the brain. Macrophages are the immune cells in the blood and other parts of the body. Microglia can be activated upon neuronal damages or infections, to destroy foreign stuff or pathogens, as well as necrotic tissues. … Continue reading

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Glia, Astrocytes, Oligodendrocytes, and Schwann Cells

Glia have a close relationship with neurons but this relationship has not been fully understood. Glia are essential partners to neurons and may influence many functions including neuronal and metabolic activities, neurotransmitter kinetics, as well as the blood flow. Glial … Continue reading

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Synapses, Gap Junctions, and Glia: Their Structures, Functions, and Features

Synapses are the regions between the terminal of an axon and the receptors on other cells. Neurotransmitters can bring the messages across the synapses. Synapses can be open or enclosed, large or small. Synaptic inputs can affect the neuron activities. … Continue reading

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Neurotransmitters and Their Functions

There are different types of neurotransmitters. For example, glutamate (glu) is involved in the excitation of the central nervous system (CNS). Aspartate (asp) is involved in the excitation of the brain and spinal cord. Gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is involved in … Continue reading

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Structure of the Neurons: Dendrites, Axons, and Membrane Potentials

Types of cells in the nervous system There are two types of cells in the nervous system. One type of cells are called neurons, the other type of cells are called glia. Studies have found that there are about 86 … Continue reading

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The Sleep Cycles, Meditation, and Brain Wave Patterns

We exist in our own subjective minds that cannot be separated from our personal perspective, which make it impossible to reach real objectivity. The brain waves during dream sleep are not much different from those during awake. Dream sleep is … Continue reading

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Meditation, Brain Waves, and Brain Activities

Electroencephalogram (EEG) is an important method measuring the brain waves and the electrical activities of the brain. The slowest waves (about 0.5-2 cycles/second) are called delta waves. Those that cycle about 8-12 times/second are alpha waves. Those that cycle about … Continue reading

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Meditation, the Brain, Neurons, and Neurotransmitters

Meditation can help promote health in various dimensions, including physical, mental, spiritual, emotional, intellectual, and social. The scientific studies and the scans of the meditating brain found that the blood flow condition may be improved in the brain, with improved … Continue reading

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Neuroscience Data and Neuroinformatics

Neuroscience Data and Neuroinformatics   Neuroscience Data   At least 50% genes of the mammalian genome are expressed by the nervous system (Sutcliffe et al., 1991). To understand brain-related diseases, it is necessary to map and study the expression patterns … Continue reading

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The Applications and Combination of Bioinformatics, Medical informatics, and Neuroinformatics

The Applications and Combination of Bioinformatics, Medical informatics, and Neuroinformatics   Mental disorders and other brain disorders such as anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, and visual impairments may account for at least one third of the worldwide burden of diseases (Wittchen et … Continue reading

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Neuroinformatics Software and Ontology Tools

Neuroinformatics Software and Ontology Tools     Category Source Name Purposes/Features/Methods Contents Applications URL References Neuroimaging Informatics Tools BrainVisa (BV) For high resolution MR images To quantify global and regional variances About cortical anatomy A plug-in application for structural analysis … Continue reading

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Neuroinformatics Databases about the Brain: Different Species

Neuroinformatics Databases about the Brain: Different Species   Species Source Name Purposes/Features/Methods Contents Applications URL References Mouse 3D digital atlas database of the mouse brain Lower spatial resolution images were utilized to enhance time efficiency for morphological phenotyping The in … Continue reading

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Neuroinformatics Databases about the Brain-Related Diseases

Neuroinformatics Databases about the Brain-Related Diseases Disease Source Name Purposes/Features/Methods Contents Applications URL References Autism National Database for Autism Research (NDAR) A secure database for data sharing, data harmonization, and collaboration in autism spectrum disorder researchers Data from more than … Continue reading

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Neuroinformatics Databases for the Structure-Function Studies of the Brain

Neuroinformatics Databases for the Structure-Function Studies of the Brain     Category Source Name The Needs/Challenges Purposes/Features/Methods Contents Applications URL References Neuroinformatics Databases about the Brain Structures The Internet Brain Volume Database (IBVD) Available data from neuroanatomic volumetric measurements; Various … Continue reading

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Neuroinformatics Databases about the Brain Structures

Neuroinformatics Databases about the Brain Structures   The Internet Brain Volume Database (IBVD) (Kennedy et al., 2012) The URL: http://www.nitrc.org/projects/ibvd The background Publications available about Neuroanatomic volumetric observations Large data sets of volumetric measurements with variables of Specific species Structures … Continue reading

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Neuroinformatics: An Introduction

Neuroinformatics: An Introduction The challenges in neuroinformatics   Challenges in making neuroinformatics databases and tools (Morse, 2008) The variety in spatial scales Various data types Traditional bioinformatics concentrates on Genomic and proteomic data Sequences (DNA, RNA, and protein molecules) Development … Continue reading

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Concepts of Cognition, Thinking, Language, and Intelligence

Concepts of Cognition, Thinking, Language, and Intelligence   Concepts Contents Related Concepts Cognition Understanding   Interpreting Organizing Remembering Problem solving Decision making Creating Mental representations Symbols   Language Concepts Images Observational learning Cognitive map   Concepts Natural concepts Fuzzy concepts … Continue reading

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Memory Stages and Concepts

Memory Stages and Concepts   Concepts Explanations Sensory memory The stage that information registers or is “held”, decided by attention. Short-term/working memory The encoding/consolidation process to prepare for storage; the limbic system, esp. the hippocampus is involved, the front lobes … Continue reading

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Sleep, Circadian Rhythm, Hypnosis, and Meditation

Sleep, Circadian Rhythm, Hypnosis, and Meditation     Circadian Rhythm   Relevant Brain Structures Locations Influences Pineal gland Close to the hypothalamus Rapid eye movement (REM) Melatonin (low in the morning, high in the evening) Reticular activating system (RAS) Brain … Continue reading

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Perception: Concepts and Theories

Perception: Concepts and Theories     Perception: A complex process begins in the brain   Perceptual set: A “frame of mind” that expectations affect the interpretation of inputs.   Culture and perception: Nature and experience influence our perception, e.g., the … Continue reading

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