The identification of biomarkers is becoming more and more important in biomedicine, especially for the clinical practice. This is because biomarkers often contain valuable information about the pathology of the diseases such as cancers. Such information is useful for better diagnosis, prognosis, and prediction for precision medicine.
This methodology is especially important in oncology and anti-cancer therapies. Specifically, prognostic biomarkers contain information about possible clinical outcomes. Predictive biomarkers may have useful information about the potential therapeutic responses (Aftimos et al. 2014).
Many methods can be used to identify biomarkers. For example, immunohistochemistry techniques can applied for protein expression to detect biomarkers for treatment responses of patients with solid tumors (Aftimos et al. 2014). Recent advances in systems biology and microarray technologies have enabled high-throughput (HTP) profiling in cancer biology with meaningful applications in biomarker discovery.
Aftimos PG, Barthelemy P, Awada A. Molecular biology in medical oncology: diagnosis, prognosis, and precision medicine. Discov Med. 2014 Feb;17(92):81-91.