Biomarkers of Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis (SAR)

Seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) is not just a commonly seen health problem in certain seasons. It is also a risk factor that can lead to asthma among many people. Nasal allergies can promote bone-marrow eosinophil generation through cytokines such as interleukin 5 (IL-5) (Beeh et al. 2003). Seasonal rhinitis patients often have higher levels of airway inflammation that may also lead to asthma.

The immune functions have important roles in both SAR and asthma, with complex reactions and interactions involved. To better understand, explain, diagnose, and predict the problems of SAR and asthma, the identification of biomarkers would be needed.

However, biomarkers based on single or separate elements have been found insufficient (Baars et al 2012). Instead, the combination of different components based on systems biology methods have been found more appropriate to indicate the complex immune activities.


Baars EW, Nierop AF, Savelkoul HF. Development of systems biology-oriented biomarkers by permuted stepwise regression for the monitoring of seasonal allergic rhinitis treatment effects. J Immunol Methods. 2012 Apr 30;378(1-2):62-71. doi: 10.1016/j.jim.2012.02.005.

Beeh KM, Beier J, Kornmann O, Meier C, Taeumer T, Buhl R. A single nasal allergen challenge increases induced sputum inflammatory markers in non-asthmatic subjects with seasonal allergic rhinitis: correlation with plasma interleukin-5. Clin Exp Allergy. 2003 Apr;33(4):475-82.

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