Whole Grain Cereal, Obesity, and the PI3K/Akt Pathway

Whole grain cereal contains fibers, minerals, vitamins, and phytochemicals. Whole grain cereal has been found to inhibit body weight gain and non-alcoholic fatty liver (Lee et al., 2017).

Whole grain cereal could decrease the atrophy-associated factors, fat pad mass, and adipocyte size (Lee et al., 2017). The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) pathway may be involved in muscle hypertrophy and myogenesis. Whole grain cereal could enhance the PI3K/Akt pathway activities and the regulators of muscle hypertrophy and myogenesis.

Therefore, whole grain cereal has been suggested as beneficial for relieving obesity-induced muscle atrophy and the overall obesity (Lee et al., 2017).

[References]
Lee S, Kim MB, Kim C, Hwang JK. Whole grain cereal attenuates obesity-induced muscle atrophy by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway in obese C57BL/6N mice. Food Sci Biotechnol. 2017 Dec 12;27(1):159-168. doi: 10.1007/s10068-017-0277-x.

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Psychoneuroimmunology and Anxiety: A Collection of Current Studies

Psychoneuroimmunology, Anxiety, Stress, and Inflammation

Duivis HE, Vogelzangs N, Kupper N, de Jonge P, Penninx BW. Differential association of somatic and cognitive symptoms of depression and anxiety with inflammation: findings from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2013 Sep;38(9):1573-85. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2013.01.002.

Furtado M, Katzman MA. Neuroinflammatory pathways in anxiety, posttraumatic stress, and obsessive compulsive disorders. Psychiatry Res. 2015 Sep 30;229(1-2):37-48. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2015.05.036.

Gariup M, Gonzalez A, Lázaro L, Torres F, Serra-Pagès C, Morer A. IL-8 and the innate immunity as biomarkers in acute child and adolescent psychopathology. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2015 Dec;62:233-42. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.08.017.

Hou R, Baldwin DS. A neuroimmunological perspective on anxiety disorders. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2012 Jan;27(1):6-14. doi: 10.1002/hup.1259.

Hou R, Garner M, Holmes C, Osmond C, Teeling J, Lau L, Baldwin DS. Peripheral inflammatory cytokines and immune balance in Generalised Anxiety Disorder: Case-controlled study. Brain Behav Immun. 2017 May;62:212-218. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2017.01.021.

Hou R, Tang Z, Baldwin DS. Potential neuroimmunological targets in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Mod Trends Pharmacopsychiatry. 2013;29:67-84. doi: 10.1159/000351965.

Michopoulos V, Powers A, Gillespie CF, Ressler KJ, Jovanovic T. Inflammation in Fear- and Anxiety-Based Disorders: PTSD, GAD, and Beyond. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2017 Jan;42(1):254-270. doi: 10.1038/npp.2016.146.

Miller AH. Norman Cousins Lecture. Mechanisms of cytokine-induced behavioral changes: psychoneuroimmunology at the translational interface. Brain Behav Immun. 2009 Feb;23(2):149-58. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2008.08.006.

Myint AM, Schwarz MJ, Steinbusch HW, Leonard BE. Neuropsychiatric disorders related to interferon and interleukins treatment. Metab Brain Dis. 2009 Mar;24(1):55-68. doi: 10.1007/s11011-008-9114-5.

Moons WG, Shields GS. Anxiety, not anger, induces inflammatory activity: An avoidance/approach model of immune system activation. Emotion. 2015 Aug;15(4):463 76. doi: 10.1037/emo0000055.

Nemeth CL, Miller AH, Tansey MG, Neigh GN. Inflammatory mechanisms contribute to microembolism-induced anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors. Behav Brain Res. 2016 Apr 15;303:160-7. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2016.01.057.

Ogłodek EA, Szota AM, Just MJ, Moś DM, Araszkiewicz A. The MCP-1, CCL-5 and SDF-1 chemokines as pro-inflammatory markers in generalized anxiety disorder and personality disorders. Pharmacol Rep. 2015 Feb;67(1):85-9. doi: 10.1016/j.pharep.2014.08.006.

Slavich GM, Irwin MR. From stress to inflammation and major depressive disorder: a social signal transduction theory of depression. Psychol Bull. 2014 May;140(3):774-815. doi: 10.1037/a0035302.

Vogelzangs N, Beekman AT, de Jonge P, Penninx BW. Anxiety disorders and inflammation in a large adult cohort. Transl Psychiatry. 2013 Apr 23;3:e249. doi: 10.1038/tp.2013.27.

Psychoneuroimmunology, Anxiety and Chronic Diseases

Capuron L, Poitou C, Machaux-Tholliez D, Frochot V, Bouillot JL, Basdevant A, Layé S, Clément K. Relationship between adiposity, emotional status and eating behaviour in obese women: role of inflammation. Psychol Med. 2011 Jul;41(7):1517-28. doi: 10.1017/S0033291710001984.

Dutheil S, Ota KT, Wohleb ES, Rasmussen K, Duman RS. High-Fat Diet Induced Anxiety and Anhedonia: Impact on Brain Homeostasis and Inflammation. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2016 Jun;41(7):1874-87. doi: 10.1038/npp.2015.357.

Jafferany M, Franca K. Psychodermatology: Basics Concepts. Acta Derm Venereol. 2016 Aug 23;96(217):35-7. doi: 10.2340/00015555-2378.

Malcarne VL, Fox RS, Mills SD, Gholizadeh S. Psychosocial aspects of systemic sclerosis. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2013 Nov;25(6):707-13. doi: 10.1097/01.bor.0000434666.47397.c2.

Peruga I, Hartwig S, Thöne J, Hovemann B, Gold R, Juckel G, Linker RA. Inflammation modulates anxiety in an animal model of multiple sclerosis. Behav Brain Res. 2011 Jun 20;220(1):20-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2011.01.018.

Pierce GL, Kalil GZ, Ajibewa T, Holwerda SW, Persons J, Moser DJ, Fiedorowicz JG. Anxiety independently contributes to elevated inflammation in humans with obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2017 Feb;25(2):286-289. doi: 10.1002/oby.21698.

Pyter LM, Suarez-Kelly LP, Carson WE 3rd, Kaur J, Bellasario J, Bever SR. Novel rodent model of breast cancer survival with persistent anxiety-like behavior and inflammation. Behav Brain Res. 2017 May 4. pii: S0166-4328(17)30090-6. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2017.05.011.

Rodrigues AR, Trufelli DC, Fonseca F, de Paula LC, Giglio AD. Fatigue in Patients With Advanced Terminal Cancer Correlates With Inflammation, Poor Quality of Life and Sleep, and Anxiety/Depression. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2016 Dec;33(10):942-947.

Steptoe A, Wikman A, Molloy GJ, Messerli-Bürgy N, Kaski JC. Inflammation and symptoms of depression and anxiety in patients with acute coronary heart disease. Brain Behav Immun. 2013 Jul;31:183-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2012.09.002.

Trikojat K, Luksch H, Rösen-Wolff A, Plessow F, Schmitt J, Buske-Kirschbaum A. “Allergic mood” – Depressive and anxiety symptoms in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) and their association to inflammatory, endocrine, and allergic markers. Brain Behav Immun. 2017 May 8. pii: S0889-1591(17)30151-4. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2017.05.005.

Zamora-Racaza G, Azizoddin DR, Ishimori ML, Ormseth SR, Wallace DJ, Penserga EG, Sumner L, Ayeroff J, Draper T, Nicassio PM, Weisman MH. Role of psychosocial reserve capacity in anxiety and depression in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Int J Rheum Dis. 2017 Mar 6. doi: 10.1111/1756-185X.13033.

Psychoneuroimmunology, Anxiety and Aging

Baune BT, Smith E, Reppermund S, Air T, Samaras K, Lux O, Brodaty H, Sachdev P, Trollor JN. Inflammatory biomarkers predict depressive, but not anxiety symptoms during aging: the prospective Sydney Memory and Aging Study. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2012 Sep;37(9):1521-30. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2012.02.006.

Bercik P, Verdu EF, Foster JA, Macri J, Potter M, Huang X, Malinowski P, Jackson W, Blennerhassett P, Neufeld KA, Lu J, Khan WI, Corthesy-Theulaz I, Cherbut C, Bergonzelli GE, Collins SM. Chronic gastrointestinal inflammation induces anxiety-like behavior and alters central nervous system biochemistry in mice. Gastroenterology. 2010 Dec;139(6):2102-2112.e1. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2010.06.063.

Martin S, Vincent A, Taylor AW, Atlantis E, Jenkins A, Januszewski A, O’Loughlin P, Wittert G. Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms, Depression, Anxiety and Systemic Inflammatory Factors in Men: A Population-Based Cohort Study. PLoS One. 2015 Oct 7;10(10):e0137903. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0137903.

Patki G, Solanki N, Atrooz F, Allam F, Salim S. Depression, anxiety-like behavior and memory impairment are associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation in a rat model of social stress. Brain Res. 2013 Nov 20;1539:73-86. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2013.09.033.

Salim S, Asghar M, Taneja M, Hovatta I, Chugh G, Vollert C, Vu A. Potential contribution of oxidative stress and inflammation to anxiety and hypertension. Brain Res. 2011 Aug 2;1404:63-71. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2011.06.024.

Ventura LM. Psychoneuroimmunology: application to ocular diseases. J Ocul Biol Dis Infor. 2009 Jun;2(2):84-93.

Vida C, González EM, De la Fuente M. Increase of oxidation and inflammation in nervous and immune systems with aging and anxiety. Curr Pharm Des. 2014;20(29):4656-78.

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Mindfulness, Behaviors, and Weight Loss

Can mindfulness trainings have effects on behaviors and weight control among those with overweight and obesity? A meta-analysis examined such possible effects from 12 randomized controlled trials (Ruffault et al., 2016). The studies were about the influences of mindfulness trainings on weight control and eating behaviors such as impulsive eating and binge eating, as well as physical activities in people with overweight and obesity.

The meta-analysis found that although mindfulness trainings may not have direct or obvious effects on weight control, such exercises may help manage the behaviors of impulsive eating and binge eating (Ruffault et al., 2016). Such strategies may also help promote the involvement of physical activities.

In addition, the meta-analysis indicated that longer follow-up periods were related to higher levels of weight loss (Ruffault et al., 2016). Such findings suggest that mindfulness trainings may lead to health-associated behaviors not just in short term. They may also have benefits for weight management in the long term. More studies are still needed to detect the long-term effects of mindfulness trainings on weight loss to ease the problems of overweight and obesity.

References:

Ruffault, A., Czernichow, S., Hagger, M. S., Ferrand, M., Erichot, N., Carette, C., … Flahault, C. (2016). The effects of mindfulness training on weight-loss and health related behaviours in adults with overweight and obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Obesity Research & Clinical Practice.

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Mindfulness and Obesity-Related Eating

Obesity is closely related to eating behaviors including binge eating, emotional eating and external eating (O’Reilly et al., 2014). Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have been found to be helpful for easing the obesity problem by improving eating behaviors.

A meta-analysis examined 21 published studies about the effects of mindfulness-based interventions on obesity-associated eating behaviors (O’Reilly et al., 2014). The MBIs included mindfulness-based stress reduction, the combination of mindfulness and cognitive behavioral methods, acceptance-based methods, as well as mindful eating trainings. The programs aimed at improving eating behaviors such as binge eating and dietary intake.

The analysis found that most of the studies observed obvious progress in the targeted obesity-associated eating behaviors including emotional eating and external eating (O’Reilly et al., 2014). Such findings support the potential applications of integrative interventions such as mindfulness-based strategies for weight management.

References:

O’Reilly, G. A., Cook, L., Spruijt-Metz, D., & Black, D. S. (2014). Mindfulness-based interventions for obesity-related eating behaviours: a literature review. Obesity Reviews : An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity, 15(6), 453–61.

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Mindfulness and Stress-Eating

Overweight and obesity problems have been associated with emotional eating behaviors, especially stress-related eating (Corsica et al., 2014). Although such problems are critical for weight management, it is not easy to provide effective interventions for improving eating behaviors.

Potential interventions may need to focus on the management of stress and the improvement of thoughts and behaviors associated with emotional eating. Such interventions may include mindfulness-based stress management programs and cognitive-behavioral therapies (Corsica et al., 2014).

A study of 53 overweight subjects (mostly women) with high levels of stress and stress-eating behaviors examined the effects of different interventions that lasted for six weeks (Corsica et al., 2014). One intervention was a modified mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program. Another intervention was a cognitive behavioral stress-eating intervention (SEI). The third program combined the elements from both stress reduction (MBSR) and cognitive behavioral interventions (SEI).

The study found that perceived stress and stress-eating behaviors were relieved remarkably in all three programs (Corsica et al., 2014). In addition, the combination program covering both stress reduction and cognitive behavioral elements had the most significant effects and led to immediate weight loss. Such effects continued even 6 weeks after the completion of the programs.

These observations support the potential weight loss strategies that aim at both stress-management and the control of stress-eating behaviors. Further studies would be needed to understand the mechanisms of the mindfulness and cognitive behavioral therapies for obesity and weight control.

References:

Corsica, J., Hood, M. M., Katterman, S., Kleinman, B., & Ivan, I. (2014). Development of a novel mindfulness and cognitive behavioral intervention for stress-eating: a comparative pilot study. Eating Behaviors, 15(4), 694–9.

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Mindful Decision-Making Training and Obesity

Excessive caloric intake such as the overeating of “junk” foods including salty snacks may contribute to the problem of obesity. Such eating decisions may be related to neurobiological preferences. The training of mindful decision-making processes may provide a helpful intervention to improve the eating behavior.

A recent study investigated the effects of a computerized inhibitory control training (ICT) and a mindful decision-making training (MDT) on eating habits (Forman et al., 2016). A total of 119 individuals with the habit of eating salty snack foods participated in the study. They were divided into 4 groups, one group had MDT, one group had ICT, one group had both MDT and ICT, and one group only had psychoeducation.

The participants reported their salty snack food consumption two times each day during the one week before and after the trainings. The study found that MDT, the mindfulness training, had consistent effects for all levels of trait emotional eating (Forman et al., 2016). In comparison, ICT showed influences on the lower levels of emotional eating.

The study indicated that both ICT and MDT may have beneficial effects by reducing hedonically-motivated eating (Forman et al., 2016). In addition, the combination of ICT and MDT may be beneficial for those with lower levels in emotional eating. More studies are still needed to find out the mechanisms and the possible differences between the training programs.

References:

Forman, E. M., Shaw, J. A., Goldstein, S. P., Butryn, M. L., Martin, L. M., Meiran, N., … Manasse, S. M. (2016). Mindful decision making and inhibitory control training as complementary means to decrease snack consumption. Appetite, 103, 176–83.

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Mindfulness, Emotional Eating, and Overweight

Mindfulness training may influence the eating habits and weight management. A recent study investigated the effects of a mindfulness and compassion-based method among 53 overweight or obese women (Palmeira et al., 2017). The study examined the possible influences of the intervention on the quality of life, weight self-stigma, body mass index, as well as the behaviors of emotional eating.

After the intervention, including the 3-month follow-up, higher quality of life was reported with higher levels of mindfulness and self-compassion among the participants (Palmeira et al., 2017). In addition, lower levels of emotional eating or weight-related experiential avoidance were observed. Other changes included lower levels of self-criticism and body mass index.

Among the changes, the lower levels of shame and self-criticism were found to be more associated with the improvements in health-related outcomes (Palmeira et al., 2017). In addition, the elevated levels of mindfulness and self-compassion were related to the weight loss and improved eating behaviors. These changes demonstrate the potential effects of mindfulness training. However, trials based on larger populations are still needed.

References:

Palmeira L, Cunha M, Pinto-Gouveia J. Processes of change in quality of life, weight self-stigma, body mass index and emotional eating after an acceptance-, mindfulness- and compassion-based group intervention (Kg-Free) for women with overweight and obesity. J Health Psychol. 2017 Jan 1:1359105316686668. doi: 10.1177/1359105316686668.

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Weight Loss Programs and Mindfulness Meditation for Obesity

Obesity is becoming a health crisis affecting more and more people. Clinical standard behavioral weight loss programs (SBWP) have been proposed to ease the problem (Spadaro et al., 2017). Such programs are often combined with trainings on mindfulness meditation (MM) to promote self-regulation behaviors and to improve the psychological wellbeing and physical health.

To investigate the effects of such trainings, 46 adults in a northeastern US city participated in a 6-month program with SBWP only or with SBWP plus MM (Spadaro et al., 2017). The participating adults were taught to reduce caloric intake, with more physical activities of 300 minutes per week, in addition to SBWP or SBWP plus MM trainings each week.

The researchers analyzed the changes in weight, eating behaviors, physical activities, and the levels of mindfulness (Spadaro et al., 2017). They observed that the SBWP plus MM group had more significant weight loss than the SBWP-only group. In addition, the SBWP plus MM group showed more improvements in eating behaviors and dietary restraint, which may contribute to the more significant weight loss.

The results suggest better effects of the mindfulness meditation methods for weight management among overweight and obese people (Spadaro et al., 2017). Such studies may encourage more investigations about the relevant scientific mechanisms. They may also be useful for developing standard protocols for weight management programs.

References:

Spadaro KC, Davis KK, Sereika SM, Gibbs BB, Jakicic JM, Cohen SM. Effect of mindfulness meditation on short-term weight loss and eating behaviors in overweight and obese adults: A randomized controlled trial. J Complement Integr Med. 2017 Dec 5. pii: /j/jcim.ahead-of-print/jcim-2016-0048/jcim-2016-0048.xml. doi: 10.1515/jcim-2016-0048.

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Rhizoma Anemarrhenae for Infectious Diseases, Fever, and Diabetes

[Name]
Rhizoma Anemarrhenae

[Chinese Name]
Zhi Mu

[Parts Used and Preparation]
Rhizome

[Flavors in Chinese Medicine]
Bitter, sweet; cold

[Chinese Medicine Meridians/Channels]
Lung, Stomach and Kidney

[Actions in Chinese Medicine]
The herb can clear the pathogenic Heat and Fire factors, and nourish Yin.

[Uses in Chinese Medicine]
• Infectious diseases with the symptoms of high fever, irritability, and thirst.
• Cough caused by the pathogenic Heat factor in the Lung, or the factor of Yin-deficiency.
• Low-grade fever and night sweats caused by Yin-deficiency in the Kidney and/or Lung.
• Diabetes with the symptoms of thirst and polyuria.

[Recommended Dosages]
6–12 grams. Add water to make decoctions.

[Warnings, Interactions, Side Effects]
Because the herb has cold and moistening effects, it should not be used by those having diarrhea or with Spleen-deficiency.

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Gypsum for Infectious Diseases, Fever, and Skin Disorders

[Name]

Gypsum Fibrosum, CaSO4, Gypsum

[Chinese Name]
Shi Gao

[Parts Used and Preparation]
Gypsum (a mineral)

[Flavors in Chinese Medicine]
Pungent, sweet; very cold

[Chinese Medicine Meridians/Channels]
Lung and Stomach

[Actions in Chinese Medicine]
The material may clear the pathogenic Heat and Fire factors, and ease irritability and thirst.

[Uses in Chinese Medicine]
• Infectious diseases caused by the pathogenic Heat factor at the Qi-Level with the symptoms including high fever, irritability, and thirst.
• Infectious diseases with the symptoms including cough, difficulties in breathing, yellow sputum, and fever.
• Headaches and gingivitis caused by the pathogenic Stomach-Fire factors.
• Calcined gypsum powder can be applied for skin disorders including skin ulcers, eczema, and burns.

[Recommended Dosages]
15–60 grams. The calcined powder can be applied for external usages.

[Warnings, Interactions, Side Effects]
The material should not be used by those with the Cold factor in the Spleen and
Stomach.

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Fructus Arctii for Sore Throat and Skin Rashes

[Name]
Fructus Arctii, Arctium lappa

[Chinese Name]
Niu Bang Zi

[Parts Used and Preparation]
Fruits

[Flavors in Chinese Medicine]
Pungent, bitter; cold

[Chinese Medicine Meridians/Channels]
Lung and Stomach

[Actions in Chinese Medicine]
The herb may detoxify and relieve rashes and swelling. It may also soothe the sore throat.

[Uses in Chinese Medicine]
• Infectious diseases including the symptoms of cough, and swollen and sore throat.
• The early stages of measles before the skin rashes appear, caused by the Wind–Heat factors.
• Skin inflammation including boils and abscesses caused by the pathogenic Heat factor.

[Recommended Dosages]
3–10 grams. Add water to make decoctions.

[Warnings, Interactions, Side Effects]
The herb should not be used by those with diarrhea.

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Bupleurum Root for Flu, Depression, and Fatigue

[Name]
Bupleurum Root, Radix Bupleuri

[Chinese Name]
Chai Hu

[Parts Used and Preparation]
Roots

[Flavors in Chinese Medicine]
Bitter, pungent; slightly cold

[Chinese Medicine Meridians/Channels]
Liver, Gallbladder, and Pericardium

[Actions in Chinese Medicine]
The herb can expel exogenous pathogenic factors, relieve fever, soothe the Liver, and promote the Spleen Yang-Qi.

[Uses in Chinese Medicine]
• Flu or common cold, including the symptoms of fever, chills, chest discomfort, and blurred vision.
• Depression, headaches, chest discomfort, and hypochondriac pain caused by the stagnation of Liver-Qi.
• Fatigue, shortness of breath, prolapse of the rectum or the uterus.

[Recommended Dosages]
3–10 grams. Add water to make decoctions.

[Warnings, Interactions, Side Effects]
The herb should not be used by those with symptoms of tinnitus, deafness, dizziness.

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Pueraria Roots for Fever, Headaches, Diarrhea, and Diabetes

[Name]
Pueraria Root, Radix Puerariae

[Chinese Name]
Ge Gen

[Parts Used and Preparation]
Roots

[Flavors in Chinese Medicine]
Sweet, pungent; cool

[Chinese Medicine Meridians/Channels]
Spleen and Stomach

[Actions in Chinese Medicine]
The herb can dispel the pathogenic factors from the exterior and muscles, relieve fever, promote the generation of fluid, and quench thirst. It can relieve measles and rashes.

[Uses in Chinese Medicine]
• Infectious diseases, including the symptoms of fever, headaches, neck and back stiffness and pain.
• Thirst in febrile diseases and diabetes.
• Diarrhea or dysentery.
• The early stages of measles with fever, chills, before the rashes appear.

[Recommended Dosages]
10–30 grams. Add water to make decoctions.

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Chrysanthemum for flu, Headaches, and Blurred Vision

[Name]
Chrysanthemum Flower, Flos Chrysanthemi

[Chinese Name]
Ju Hua

[Parts Used and Preparation]
Flowers

[Flavors in Chinese Medicine]
Sweet, bitter; slightly cold

[Chinese Medicine Meridians/Channels]
Liver and Lung

[Actions in Chinese Medicine]
The herb can expel the pathogenic wind factor, clear away the pathogenic heat factor, and calm the Liver. It may have detoxification effects.

[Uses in Chinese Medicine]
• Infectious diseases, flu, and the early stages of epidemic febrile diseases, with symptoms including fever, headaches, and dizziness.
• Eye inflammation including red eyes and pain in the eyes caused by the pathogenic wind–heat factors.
• Headaches, dizziness, vertigo, and blurred vision.

[Recommended Dosages]
10–15 grams. Add water to make tea or decoction. It can also be made into pills or powder.

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Mulberry Leaves for Flu, Cough, and Eye Inflammation

[Name]
Mulberry Leaves, Folium Mori

[Chinese Name]
Sang Ye

[Parts Used and Preparation]
Leaves

[Flavors in Chinese Medicine]
Sweet, bitter; cold

[Chinese Medicine Meridians/Channels]
Lung and Liver

[Actions in Chinese Medicine]
The herb can expel pathogenic wind and heat factors, clear the heat from the Lung and Liver, stop coughing, and improve the vision.

[Uses in Chinese Medicine]
• Infectious diseases, flu caused by exogenous pathogenic wind–heat factors, with symptoms including fever, dizziness, headaches, cough, and sore throat.
• Cough, thick phlegm caused by the pathogenic dry-heat factors in the Lung.
• Eye inflammation, dry or red eyes, or blurred vision.

[Recommended Dosages]
5–10 grams. Add water to make decoctions.

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Peppermint for Flu, Common Cold, and Headaches

[Name]
Peppermint, Herba Menthae

[Chinese Name]
Bo He

[Parts Used and Preparation]
The whole herb

[Flavors in Chinese Medicine]
Pungent; cool

[Chinese Medicine Meridians/Channels]
Lung and Liver

[Actions in Chinese Medicine]
The herb can dispel the pathogenic wind-heat factors. It may also relieve sore throat, itching, and skin rashes.

[Uses in Chinese Medicine]
• Infectious diseases, flu, common cold, including the early stages of epidemic febrile diseases. The symptoms of the diseases include fever, chills, headaches, and dizziness.
• Headaches and eye inflammation.
• The early stages of measles, shown as itching and rashes.
• Chest pain and hypochondriac pain.

[Recommended Dosages]
2–10 grams. Avoid overcooking.

[Warnings, Interactions, Side Effects]
The herb should not be used by those with spontaneous sweating.

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The Herb Perillae for Infectious Diseases, Flu

[Name]
Perillae, Perilla frutescens

[Chinese Name]
Zi Su

[Parts Used and Preparation]
Stalks; leaves; seeds

[Flavors in Chinese Medicine]
Pungent; warm

[Chinese Medicine Meridians/Channels]
Lung and Spleen

[Actions in Chinese Medicine]
The herb may disperse the exterior pathogenic wind and cold factors. It may relieve food poisoning and certain toxic effects from fish and crab.

[Uses in Chinese Medicine]
• Infectious diseases caused by exogenous pathogenic wind-cold factors. The symptoms include fever, chills, headaches, stuffy/runny nose, and cough.

[Recommended Dosages]
3–10 grams.

[Warnings, Interactions, Side Effects]
Avoid overcooking of the herb.

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Herba Asari for Sinusitis, Pain, and Infectious Diseases

[Name]
Herba Asari, Asarum heterotropoides

[Chinese Name]
Xi Xin

[Parts Used and Preparation]
Roots

[Flavors in Chinese Medicine]
Pungent; warm

[Chinese Medicine Meridians/Channels]
Lung and Kidney

[Actions in Chinese Medicine]
The herb can expel exogenous pathogenic wind factors and dispel cold factors. It can relieve pain, warm the lungs, and remove dampness and phlegm.

[Uses in Chinese Medicine]
• Infectious diseases with exterior symptoms caused by exogenous pathogenic wind-cold factors.
• Various types of pain including headaches, toothache, and joint pain.
• Nasal congestion and sinusitis.
• Cough and difficult breathing caused by the pathogenic cold and phlegm factors.

[Recommended Dosages]
1.5–3 grams. Add water to make decoctions.

[Warnings, Interactions, Side Effects]
Avoid over-dosages. The herb cannot be used by those with sweating caused by Qi-deficiency, headaches caused by excessive Yang, or dry cough. It should not be used together with the herb Li Lu (Veratrum).

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Dahurian Angelica Root for Common Cold, Skin Inflammation, and Pain

[Name]
Dahurian Angelica Root, Radix Angelicae Dahuricae

[Chinese Name]
Bai Zhi

[Parts Used and Preparation]
Roots

[Flavors in Chinese Medicine]
Pungent; warm

[Chinese Medicine Meridians/Channels]
Lung and Stomach

[Actions in Chinese Medicine]
The herb may relieve the exterior symptoms and disperse the pathogenic cold factors. It may expel the pathogenic wind factor, relieve pain, reduce swelling, and eliminate the pathogenic dampness factor.

[Uses in Chinese Medicine]
• Common cold and flu of the wind-cold type, with symptoms including headaches, body aches, and stuffy/runny nose.
• Various types of pain including headaches, toothache, especially pain in the forehead and supra-orbital region.
• Skin infections and inflammation, sores, and boils.
• Stomachaches.
• Leukorrhagia and excessive vaginal discharge caused by the pathogenic dampness factors.

[Recommended Dosages]
3–10 grams. Add water to make decoctions.

[Warnings, Interactions, Side Effects]
For relieving stomachache, 30 grams can be used at the beginning and reduced to normal dosages later.

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Notopterygium Root for Infectious Diseases and Joint Pain

[Name]
Notopterygium Root, Rhizoma seu Radix Notopterygii, Rhizoma et Radix Notopterygii, Notopterygium incisum

[Chinese Name]
Qiang Huo

[Parts Used and Preparation]
Roots and rhizomes

[Flavors in Chinese Medicine]
Pungent, bitter; warm

[Chinese Medicine Meridians/Channels]
Urinary Bladder and Kidney

[Actions in Chinese Medicine]
The herb may relieve exterior symptoms, disperse pathogenic cold factors, and expel pathogenic wind and dampness.

[Uses in Chinese Medicine]
• Infectious diseases caused by exogenous pathogenic cold-wind factors, symptoms shown as chills, fever, headaches, and body aches.
• Rheumatism of the wind-cold-dampness type, shown as pain in the limbs, joints, shoulder, and back.

[Recommended Dosages]
3–10 gram. Add water to make decoctions.

[Warnings, Interactions, Side Effects]
The herb cannot be used by those with Qi/blood-deficiency, or those with dry throat.

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Psychoneuroimmunology and Nutrition Books

Stress, Chronic Diseases, and Psychoneuroimmunology

Stress, Depression, Inflammation, and Psychoneuroimmunology

Healing Stress and Chronic Diseases: Mind-Body Methods and Mechanisms (Psychoneuroimmunology)

Vitamins and Weight Loss: How Vitamins Affect Fat Burning Exercises, Bariatric Surgery, and Obesity Related Diseases

Natural Antioxidants and Weight Loss: Anti-Obesity and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Polyphenol Extracts from Fruits and Herbs

Weight Loss and Anti-Obesity Effects of Natural Saponins Extracted from Herbs and Foods

Natural Flavonoids as Dietary Supplements for Weight Loss and Healing of Obesity Related Diseases

Natural Products, Chemical Compounds, and Gene Targets for Weight Loss: Discoveries from Genetic Interactions

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Chinese Herbal Medicine and Acupuncture Books

Introductions

How to Use Herbs in Chinese Medicine: The Basics and Practical Guides

How to Use Cupping Therapy and Moxibustion for Natural Healing

Herbal Recipes for Obesity and Weight Loss

Chinese Diet Recipes for Healthy Weight Loss

Classical and Patent Chinese Herbal Recipes for Weight Loss

Chinese Herbal Recipes for Obesity-Related Diseases

Chinese Herbal Recipes for Weight Loss in Different Age Groups

Herbal Recipes for Beauty and Skin Problems

Timeless Herbs for Timeless Beauty: Classical and Secret Chinese Herbal Recipes for Anti-Wrinkle and Silky Skin

Timeless Herbs for Timeless Beauty: Classical and Secret Chinese Herbal Recipes for Hair Care and Hair Loss Treatment

Timeless Herbs for Timeless Beauty: Classical and Secret Chinese Herbal Recipes for Aromatherapy and Skin Care

Timeless Herbs for Timeless Beauty: Classical and Secret Chinese Herbal Recipes for Jade-Like Hands

Timeless Herbs for Timeless Beauty: Classical and Secret Chinese Herbal Recipes for Bright Eyes

Timeless Herbs for Timeless Beauty: Classical and Secret Chinese Herbal Recipes for Cold Sores, Rosacea, and Red Nose Syndrome

Timeless Herbs for Timeless Beauty: Classical and Secret Chinese Herbal Recipes for Removing Bad Breath and Strengthening Teeth

Herbal Recipes for Influenza

Classical Chinese Herbal Recipes for Healing Flu, Common Cold, and Infectious Diseases

Acupuncture Books

Acupuncture Classics

Acupuncture for A Hundred Diseases in Verse (Bai Zheng Fu)

Understanding the Miracle and Essence of Acupuncture: A Classical Acupuncture Verse (Tong Xuan Zhi Yao Fu)

The Jade Dragon Verse of Using Acupuncture (Yu Long Fu)

Acupuncture for Influenza

How to Prevent and Heal Flu and Common Cold Using Acupressure and Acupuncture

Acupuncture for Weight Loss

Acupuncture for Weight Loss and Treatment of Obesity-Related Diseases: An Overview

Qigong

How to Practice Qigong: The Basics and Principles

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Ledebouriella Root for Infectious Diseases and Pain

[Name]
Ledebouriella Root, Radix Ledebouriellae, Radix Saposhnikoviae

[Chinese Name]
Fang Feng

[Parts Used and Preparation]
Root

[Flavors in Chinese Medicine]
Pungent, sweet; slightly warm

[Chinese Medicine Meridians/Channels]
Urinary Bladder, Liver and Spleen

[Actions in Chinese Medicine]
The herb may expel exogenous pathogenic wind factors, relieve the exterior symptoms, remove dampness, and relieve pain.

[Uses in Chinese Medicine]
• Infectious diseases caused by exogenous pathogenic wind-cold factors with symptoms including headaches, chills, and body aches.
• Rheumatism and arthralgia shown as joint pain and muscle spasm.
• Tetanus shown as spasm, convulsion, opisthotonos, and trismus.

[Recommended Dosages]
3–10 grams. Add water to make decoctions.

[Warnings, Interactions, Side Effects]
Use with caution for those of the blood-deficiency, Yin-deficiency, or excessive-Fire types.

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Schizonepeta for Infectious Diseases and Skin Disorders

[Name]
Schizonepeta, Herba Schizonepetae

[Chinese Name]
Jing Jie

[Parts Used and Preparation]
Whole herb

[Flavors in Chinese Medicine]
Pungent; warm

[Chinese Medicine Meridians/Channels]
Lung and Liver

[Actions in Chinese Medicine]
This herb may dispel the pathogenic wind factors and relieve the exterior symptoms.

[Uses in Chinese Medicine]
• Infectious diseases caused by exogenous pathogenic wind-cold factors, shown as chills, headaches, fever, sore throat, and no sweating.
• Itchy skin, skin rashes, measles, pruritus with exterior symptoms.
• Hematemesis, hematochezia, and metrorrhagia. The charred herb can be used.

[Recommended Dosages]
3–10 grams. Add water to cook in decoctions. For exterior symptoms, use the raw herb. For stopping bleeding, make charcoal.

[Warnings, Interactions, Side Effects]
Avoid overcooking in the decoctions.

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Cinnamon Twig for Infectious Diseases, Rheumatism, and Pain

[Name]
Cinnamon Twig, Cinnamon, Ramulus Cinnamomi, Cinnamomum cassia

[Chinese Name]
Gui Zhi

[Parts Used and Preparation]
Twig

[Flavors in Chinese Medicine]
Pungent, sweet; warm

[Chinese Medicine Meridians/Channels]
Heart, Lung, and Urinary Bladder

[Actions in Chinese Medicine]
The herb may induce sweating and expel exogenous pathogenic factors. It may warm the meridians and promote the flow of the Yang-Qi.

[Uses in Chinese Medicine]
• Infectious diseases, the wind-cold type with the symptoms including headaches, fever and chills.
• Rheumatism and arthralgia of the wind-cold-dampness type with symptoms including pain in the joints.
• Cold feelings in the back, cough, dyspnea, and dizziness caused by the Yang-deficiency of the heart and spleen.
• Chest pain, palpitation of the heart, slow and irregular pulse.
• Irregular menstruation, amenorrhea or dysmenorrhea, and abdominal pain caused by blood-coldness and stagnation.

[Recommended Dosages]
3–10 grams.

[Warnings, Interactions, Side Effects]
It is contraindicated in epidemic febrile diseases, and those of the blood-heat type.

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